Usool as-Sunnah / أصول السنة

Usul us-Sunnah English / أصول السنة عربي


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Imaam Ahl al-Sunnah Abu Abdillah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Rahimaullaah

Edited By Aboo Ibrahim

Shaykh Abu ‟AbdullâhYahyâ ibn Abil-Hasan ibn al-Banna narrated to us saying: My father Abuu ‟Ali al-Hasan ibn ‟Umar ibn al-Bannaa related to us, saying: Abul- Hussain ‟Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‟Abdullaah ibn Bushrân al-Mu‟addil relatcd to us, saying: ‟Uthmaan ibn Ahmad ibn as-Sammak reported to us, saying: Abu Muhammad al-Husan ibn ‟Abdul-Wahhaab, Abun-Nabr narrated to us, reading it to him from his written copy in the month of Rabi’ul-Awwal, in the year two hundred and ninety-three (293H), who said: Abu Ja‟far Muhammad ibn Sulaiman al-Munqarî, in Basrah, related to us, saying: ‟Abdus ibn Malik al-‟Attar narrated to me, saying: I heard Abu ‟Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hanbal – radiallahu ’anhu – say:

The Fundamental Principles of the Sunnah with us are:

Holding fast to what the Sahaabah (Companions) of the Messenger of Allah were upon.

Taking them [and their way] as a model to be followed.

The abandonment of al-Bid’ah (innovations),

and every Bid’ah is misguidance.
…..

www.IslamicKnowledge.co.uk


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Imaam of Ahl as-Sunnah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164-241 AH) was one of those rightly guided imams who lived in the earlier Hijri centuries. Those imams were role models for people. They displayed piety, superior moral values, and sincere adherence to the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Hence, people developed confidence in those imams’ sound approach and sincere application of religion.

Those rightly guided imams would give impressive courses of lectures in the mosques where seekers of knowledge would attend in great numbers to listen to an interpretation of some verse, ask for explanation of a hadith, or seek a fatwa. People would hold those imams in the highest esteem and model themselves after their guidance so that they may be rescued in the Hereafter.

Birth and Origin

Born in Rabi` Awwal AH 164 (November 780 CE), Imam Ahmad belongs a noble house of Bani Shayban in Baghdad. His father passed away before his birth. His mother took care of him and brought him up in the most proper manner.

She was keen that he learns the different disciplines of knowledge prevalent at that time. So, he memorized the Noble Qur’an and applied himself enthusiastically to the knowledge of Hadith. He would get up at dawn to be the first student to attend the knowledge circle of his sheikh.

During his teens, he joined the circle of Abu Yusuf, a disciple of Imam Abu Hanifah and the first person to hold the post of Chief Judge. His circle was unspeakably splendid. It attracted seekers of knowledge, scholars, as well as judges of different classes and ranks. Imam Ahmad attended this circle for four years. He recorded in writing all what he learned there, which formed a great amount of papers.

He also used to attend the circle of Imam Hasheem ibn Basheer As-Solamy, the grand scholar of Hadith in Baghdad. Moreover, whenever he heard that a knowledgeable scholar came to Baghdad, he would seek to acquire knowledge from him. In this regard, he learned from the great scholars Na`eem ibn Hammad, Abdul-Rahman ibn Mahdi, and `Umayr ibn Abdullah ibn Khaled.

A Knowledge-Seeker

Seekers of knowledge at the time were known for their journeys in the pursuit of religious knowledge, especially Hadith. Regardless of the high cost and distance of this kind of journeys, seekers of knowledge would travel throughout the Muslim World where the eminent jurists and scholars of Hadith live to acquire knowledge.

Imam Ahmad commenced his blessed journey in the pursuit of Hadith in AH 186 (802 CE) at the age of 22. He went to Basra, Koufa, Ar-Riqqa, Yemen, and Al-Hijaz (i.e., Makkah and Madinah) where he met a number of prominent and great scholars and jurists of the Ummah, such as Yahya ibn Sa`id Al-Qattan, Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi, Waki` ibn Al-Jarraah, Abu Mu`awiyah Ad-Darir, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, and Ash-Shafe`i.

He dedicated himself to studying at the hands of Ash-Shafe`i for a period of time, during which he learned fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and its principles. He was such a devout seeker of knowledge that Imam Ash-Shafe`i said about him that there was no one in Baghdad that was more knowledgeable in religion and skillful in memorizing hadiths than Imam Ahmad.

His great passion for seeking Hadith made him bear every difficulty willingly. Despite his great knowledge and high status among eminent scholars, he proceeded to seek knowledge from others. Though his sheikhs and colleagues attested to the ample knowledge he possessed, he did not feel embarrassed at all to sit among students to receive knowledge from others.

Seeing Imam Ahmad holding the inkwell by means of which he would write what he learned, a contemporary of him commented, “O father of Abdullah, [You sit among students] despite the high level of knowledge you have reached. You are the imam of Muslims [in knowledge]!” The reply of Imam Ahmad came thus: “With the inkwell [I stay] till I go to the grave.”

A Teacher

It is worth noting that Imam Ahmad took the seat of teaching and issuing fatwa in Baghdad in AH 204 (819 CE), which was the same year Imam Ash-Shafe`i died. Imam Ahmad was thus a great successor to an eminent predecessor.

He used to have two knowledge-imparting circles: a special one at his home for his keen students and a general one in the mosque following the `Asr Prayer for ordinary people and knowledge-seekers in general.

Imam Ahmad would deal heartily with his students and would describe their inkwells with which they recorded what he imparted to them of hadiths as the lambs of Islam. Furthermore, he was so honest and meticulous in reporting hadiths that he never reported a hadith unless it was from a written source, though he was highly noted for his sharp memory.

It is also worth mentioning that Imam Ahmad memorized about million narrations from the Companions and Tab`in (first generation after Prophet Muhammad).

A number of keen students who studied at Imam Ahmad’s circles for a good and long time spread his knowledge and jurisprudence everywhere. Most eminent among them was Abu Bakr Al-Maruzy, who was close to the imam and most liked by him on account of his knowledge, superior morality, truthfulness, and integrity. Imam Ahmad said about him, “Whatever he [Al-Maruzy] reports me as saying is truly said by me.” Also, among the students of Imam Ahmad were Abu Bakr Al-Athram, Ishaq ibn Mansur At-Tamimi, Ibrahim ibn Ishaq Al-Harbi, Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and Baqi ibn Makhlad.

His School of Thought

Imam Ahmad did not record his juristic fatwas, nor did he compile a book on jurisprudence or assign such a job to any of his students. He disliked that any of his fatwas be written. This remained the case until Abu Bakr Al-Khallal, a student of Al-Maruzy undertook the responsibility of compiling the Hanbali fiqh.

Al-Khallal traveled to various places in search of the juristic opinions and fatwas issued by Imam Ahmad. He gathered such a huge number of fatwas that he compiled a book of about 20 volumes entitled Al-Jami` Al-Kabir.

He later held a circle in Al-Mahdi mosque in Baghdad to teach this book to his students. Out of this knowledge-imparting circle, the written jurisprudence of the Hanbali school of thought spread after it was no more than scattered narrations.

Afterwards, Abu Al-Qasim Al-Khiraqi summarized the book compiled by Al-Khallal in a book entitled Mukhtasar Al-Khiraqi (Al-Khiraqi’s Compendium). This book found favor with people and captured the attention of the Hanbali jurists, who wrote more than 300 books wherein explaining Al-Khiraqi’s book and commenting on it. The best and most well-known book among those 300 was Al-Mughni written by Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdesi.

Later, Imam Abdus-Salam ibn Abdullah, the grandfather of Imam Ibn Taymiyah, reviewed Imam Ahmad’s fatwas and wrote a book entitled Al-Muharir (The Freer) on jurisprudence. After that, many other books were written on Imam Ahmad’s fatwas, and these books circulated among people.

The Hanbali School was the most flexible school of thought with regard to freedom of transaction.
It is worth noting that the Hanbali school was the most flexible school of thought with regard to freedom of transaction and the conditions thereby the contracting parties shall be required to abide. Imam Ahmad held the opinion that the basic rule is that transactions among people are, in principle, permissible unless proved otherwise by a legal proof.

His Trial

Imam Ahmad faced a serious trial that he bore steadfastly. He refused to make any concessions in the process.

The trial began when Caliph Al-Ma’moun declared in AH 218 (833 CE) his call to consider the Qur’an a creature like all creatures. Many jurists were forced under torture to agree. But Ahmad and Muhammad ibn Noah refused to succumb. As a consequence, they were fettered and sent to Baghdad to stand before Caliph Al-Ma’moun. While they were on their way to him, the caliph passed away, so they were returned to Baghdad fettered.

On the way back to Baghdad, Muhammad ibn Noah died. But before his death, he advised his companion, Imam Ahmad, saying, “You are a man that people take as a role model. They are now waiting to see how you will act [in this trial]. So, be mindful of Almighty Allah and remain steadfast for His sake.”

Imam Ahmad acted upon his companion’s advice and stood up for his beliefs. He was imprisoned for more than two years. Then he was carried to Caliph Al-Mu`tasim, who followed in the footsteps of his late brother, Al-Ma’moun.

The carrot-and-stick approach was used with Imam Ahmad in the presence of the caliph and his gathering in an attempt to gain a single word from him in support of their allegation about the Qur’an being a creature. They would ask him, “What do you say about the Qur’an? Is it a creature?” And his only reply was “It is Allah’s word.”

With the persistent attempts by the caliph to win him over, the imam would get more determined. When despair seized them, they hang him from the heels. They would whip him without the least prick of conscience that they were whipping an innocent and guiltless individual, let alone that he was a pious scholar whom people take as a role model. They showed no mercy in lashing his infirm body with turns of their harsh whips. He fainted as a result of the flogging and was released and returned home.

During the era of Caliph Al-Wathiq (AH 227–232 [841–847 CE]), Imam Ahmad was forbidden to address people in a gathering. He was allowed to go out only for prayer.

Circumstances changed, however, when Al-Mutawakkil assumed the Caliphate. He banned the opinion saying that the Qur’an is a creature and restored to Imam Ahmad his esteem and status. Upon that, Imam Ahmad resumed his teaching circles in the mosque.

His Writings

Al-Musnad (The Authenticated) is the most prominent book among his writings. It is the biggest record of the Prophet’s Sunnah as it includes about 40 thousand hadiths out of 750 thousand hadiths that Imam Ahmad had knowledge about. Imam Ahmad began writing this book after the age of 36.

Az-Zuhd (Arabic for Asceticism) tackles the hadiths and narrations on the subject of asceticism.

As-Sunnah (Arabic for Sunnah) handles the hadiths on matters of belief.

Al-Wara` wa Al-Iman (Arabic for Piety and Faith) focuses on the hadiths and narrations tackling piety and awareness of Almighty Allah.

Al-Masa’il (Arabic for Problems) is in fact a book compiled by some students of Imam Ahmad and two of his sons. It is in the form of questions and answers about juristic issues, matters of belief, chains of narrators, and hadiths and their explanations.

Fada’il As-Sahabah (Arabic for Virtues of the Companions) contains almost 2000 narrations about the virtues of the Prophet’s Companions.

All these books are published and widely read.

His Death

After a life full of great achievements, Imam Ahmad passed away in Rabi` Thani 12, AH 241 (August 30, 855 CE) at the age of 77. He was buried in Baghdad.

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By Ahmad Tammam (Rahimahullah)
Translated By Ahmed El-Gharbawy

http://www.islamonline.net

Was Ibn Taymiyyah a anthropomorphist?

(note: Question & answer have been shortened, to read the full question & answer please see link at the bottom of article)

Q) I have read that he deviated from the correct aqeedah and was a anthropomorphist.

A)What is mentioned in the question about Shaykh al-Islam having deviated from sound ‘aqeedah and ascribed to Allaah, may He be exalted, the attributes of His creation, is an utter fabrication and a blatant lie against Shaykh al-Islam and his methodology and ‘aqeedah. Anyone who reads any of his major or minor books will realize that. Among these texts and rules which it would be too difficult to refer to all of them, let alone quote them, are his words:

The early generation of this ummah and its imams are unanimously agreed that there is nothing like unto Allaah, either in His essence or His attributes or His actions. One of the imams said: Whoever likens Allaah to His creation is a kaafir, and whoever denies that which Allaah has ascribed to Himself is a kaafir; there is nothing like unto that which Allaah has ascribed to Himself or His Messenger has ascribed to Him. End quote.

Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam (2/126).

And he (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

The comprehensive statement concerning all of this matter is that Allaah is to be described as He has described Himself or His Messenger has described Him, and as the early generation have described Him, and we are not to go beyond what the Qur’aan and hadeeth say.

Imam Ahmad (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: Allaah is not to be described except as He has described Himself or His Messenger has described Him, and one is not to go beyond the Qur’aan and hadeeth.

The approach of the salaf was to describe Allaah as He described Himself and as His Messenger described Him, without distorting or denying, and without asking how or likening Him to His creation. We know that what Allaah has ascribed to Himself is true, and there is nothing mysterious or puzzling in it, rather its meaning is to be understood as the One Who said it meant it to be understood, especially when the one who said it is more knowledgeable of what he says than all other people and the most eloquent and most able to explain what he wanted to explain, and the most fluent in explaining, defining and guiding.

In addition to all of this, there is nothing like unto Allaah, either in His holy essence or His names and attributes or actions. We believe firmly that He has a real essence and that He has real actions, and real attributes. There is nothing like unto Him, in his essence, attributes or actions. If there is anything that implies shortcomings or that He has a beginning, He is far above that in a real sense, and He is to be thought of as perfect in such a way that there is no perfection above it. He has no beginning and He cannot have been created, because there was never a time when He did not exist. For anything to be created implies that there was a time when it did not exist, and that creation would require a creator, but He has always existed from eternity.

The view of the salaf is one of moderation, neither denying the divine attributes nor likening Allaah to His creation. They do not liken the attributes of Allaah to the attributes of His creation, as they do not liken His essence to the essence of His creation. They do not deny that which He ascribes to Himself or that His Messenger ascribes to Him, which leads to denying His beautiful names and sublime attributes, and to displacing words from (their) right places (cf. al-Nisa’ 4:46) and turning away from (Fussilat 41:40) the names and signs of Allaah.

Both those who deny Allaah’s attributes and those who liken Him to His creation are guilty of both errors. Those who deny His attributes failed to understand the names and attributes of Allaah except in a manner that is befitting to created beings, so they denied these concepts and thus they have combined both errors; first of all they likened Him to His creation, then they denied His attributes as a result. That is likening the names and attributes to what may be understood from the names and attributes of His creation, then they denied the attributes that He deserves to have that are befitting to Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted.

Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam (5/26-27)

The texts of Shaykh al-Islam concerning this issue are very many, as we have indicated, but what we have quoted is sufficient, in sha Allaah.

And Allaah is the Source of strength.

click link to read the full question & answer http://islamqa.com/en/ref/96323/

Blind Following one of The Four Madhabs

Imaam Abu Haneefah

He said: “It is not permissible for anyone to follow what we say if they do not know where we got it from.”

According to another report he said: “It is haraam for the one who does not know my evidence to issue a fatwa based on my words.”

and he said: “woe be to you Ya’qoob. Do not write down everything you hear from me, for surely I may hold an opinion today and leave it tomorrow, hold another tomorrow and leave it the day after”

And he said: “If I say something that goes against the Book of Allaah or the report of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), then ignore what I say.”

And he said: “”Adhere to the athaar and the way of the salaf and beware of newly invented matters, for all of it is an innovation.”

He also said: “if a hadeeth is found to be authentic, that is my madhab”

Now, the opposers to the dawah salafiyyah, the dawah of ahl as-sunnah, claim that these statements were only for “Abu Haneefah’s students” which is an absurd saying! As what will the students do with such saying if not act according to them and teach this to their followers!?

Imaam Malik

He said: “I am only human, sometimes I make mistakes and sometimes I get things right. Look at my opinion and whatever is in accordance with the Qur’aan and Sunnah, take it, and whatever is not in accordance with the Qur’aan and Sunnah, ignore it.”

And he said: “There is no one after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) whose words cannot be taken or left, apart from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).”

Imaam al-Shafi’ee

He said: “There is no one who will not be unaware of some of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Whatever I say or whatever guidelines I establish, if there is a report from the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which is different to what I said, then what matters is what the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, and that is my opinion.”

according to al-Haakim, Imaam Shafi’ee said: “There is no one among us who has not had a sunnah of Allaah’s messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) elude him or have one slip his mind; so no matter what rulings I have made or fundamental principles I have proposed, there will be in them things contrary to the rulings of Allaah’s messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Therefore, the correct ruling is according to what Allaah’s messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, and that is my ruling.”

He also said: “The Muslims (of my time) were of a unanimous opinion that one who comes across an authentic sunnah of Allaah’s messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not allowed to disregard it in favour of someone else’s opinion.”

al-Haakim also collected from Imaam ash-Shafi’ee a similar statement to that of Imaam Abu Haneefah, that being “If a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, it is my madhab.”

He also said: “If I say something then compare it to the Book of Allaah and the sunnah of His messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and if it agrees with them, then accept it and that which goes against them, then reject it and throw my saying against the wall!”

Imaam an-Nawawi in Tahdheeb al-Asma wa’l-Lughaat mentioned under the biography of Imaam Shafi’ee: “…then he travelled to al-‘Iraaq where he spread the knowledge of hadeeth and he established the madhab of its people – that is the madhab of the Ahl al-Hadeeth.”

Imaam Ahmad said: “Do not follow me blindly and do not follow Maalik or al-Shafi’ee or al-Awzaa’i or ath-Thawri blindly. Learn from where they learned.”

And he said: “The opinion of al-Awzaa’i and the opinion of Maalik and the opinion of Abu Haneefah are all mere conjecture and it is all the same to me. Rather evidence is to be found in the reports – i.e., in the shar’i evidence.”

Ibn Abdul-Barr stated in Jaami’Bayaan al-‘ilm that, “There are no scholars from this ummah to whom a hadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was established and then they rejected it… If they had done so, their trustworthiness would have been in question, let alone them being taken as Imaams, since doing so (rejecting hadeeth) necessitates sinfulness.”

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “No one has to blindly follow any particular man in all that he enjoins or forbids or recommends, apart from the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). The Muslims should always refer their questions to the Muslim scholars, following this one sometimes and that one sometimes. If the follower decides to follow the view of an imam with regard to a particular matter which he thinks is better for his religious commitment or is more correct etc, that is permissible according to the majority of Muslim scholars, and neither Abu Haneefah, Maalik, al- Shafi’ee or Ahmad said that this was forbidden.”

Ibn al-Qayyim said: in his Qaeedah Nuniyyah:

“If you say “Allaah said, and His Messenger said”
the ignorant one will say “where is the saying of so and so?”

(adapted from the works of Shaykh Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid and also the book ‘Refutation of Zayd Shaakir’s ‘Introduction to Following a Madhab’‘)