Rulings regarding Reading and Narrating from the Books of Jews and Christians (Urdu) کتبِ اہل کتاب پڑھنے اور نقل کرنے کا حکم

کتبِ اہل کتاب پڑھنے اور نقل کرنے کا حکم
Rulings regarding Reading and Narrating from the Books of Jews and Christians

Reading the books of the Jews and Christians by Shaikh Uthaimeen, Mashur Salman and Yahyaa al-Hajoori


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کتبِ اہل کتاب پڑھنے اور نقل کرنے کا حکم
فضیلۃ الشیخ محمد بن صالح العثیمین رحمہ اللہ
فضیلۃ الشیخ مشہور بن حسن آل سلمان حفظہ اللہ
فضیلۃ الشیخ یحیی بن علی الحجوری حفظہ اللہ

Rulings regarding Reading and Narrating from the Books of Jews and Christians by Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaimeen, Shaykh Mashoor Salmaan and Shaykh Yahyaa al-Hajooree

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Adding the word “Sayyiduna” to Tashahhud or when sending Salāt on the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

by Shaykh Mashur Hasan Salman

Shaikh Muhammad Jamālud Dīn Al-Qāsimī said:
‘The ‘Ulamah differed amongst themselves regarding the word “Sayyidunā” when sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

Imām Ibn Hajar was asked regarding this point and he answered in a very convincing manner. The following paragraphs present the question and the answer.

The question: Is it an obligation in Salāt or outside Salāt that a muslim says the word “Sayyiduna” when sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) such as to say: “Allāh humma Sallī ‘Alā Sayyidinā Muhammad” or “‘Alā Sayyidil khalq” [the master of the creation] or should one only say: “Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad”? which one is better??

The answer: ‘Indeed following the affirmed wording of [any] Thikr is better. Some falsely raised that the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) abandoned this word out of his humbleness, but muslims should say it. Were this hypothesis true, the Sahābah and Tābi’īn would have said it and nothing of such a thing was affirmed though many of them reported the Tashahhud. And also pay heed to the great eminent ‘Ālim Ash-Shāfi’i’s statement with which he commenced his book – to which all his followers adhere- he said: ‘Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad’.(1)

* Important Notes:
It is worth mentioning here the following points:

The first:
The hādīth that states: “Lā Tusayyidūnī Fī As-Salāt” [i.e. Never say “Master” in your Salāt] is a forged one, even the word “Tusayyidūnī” is linguistically incorrect; the proper derivation of the word should be “Tusawwidūnī” [i.e. call me master]. This hadīth is a forged one that has no basis whatsoever (2) regarding Isnād and Matn. were it authentic, we would have used it as a proof for the point under discussion.

The second:
Many Muslims mix the forms of Tashahhud and come up with a new one that runs as follows: ‘Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad Wa’alā ‘Āl: Muhammad, Kamā Sallayt ‘Alā Ibrāhīm Wa’alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Fil ‘Ālamīn. Innaka Hamīdun Majīd’.
This new mixed wording of Tashahhud is illegal for any act of worship should be taken from the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), no more no less, and the previous wording of Tashahhud was not affirmed to be of the prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) Sunnah; on the contrary it is a mixture of two Sahr’ wordings.

The first: ‘Allāumma Salli ‘Alā Muhammad, Wa’alā(3) ‘Āli Muhammad, Kamā Sallaita ‘Alā Ibrāhīm Wa’alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Innaka Hamidun Majīd. Allāhumma Bārik ‘Alā Muhammad Wa’alā ‘Āli Muhammad Kamā Bārakta ‘Alā Ibrāhīm Wa’alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Innaka Hamīdun Majīd’.

The second: ‘Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad {An – Naby Al-’Ummī} Wa’alā ‘Āli Muhammad, Kama Sallayta ‘Alā {‘Āli} Ibrāhīm, Wabārik ‘Alā Muhammad {An – Naby Al-’Ummi} Wa’alā ‘Āli Muhammad, Kamā Barakta ‘Alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Fil ‘Ālamīn Innaka Hamīdun Majīd’.(4)

When a muslim recites one of the wordings of Tashahhud, he should stick to its wording, with no addition or omission, for Tashahhud is an act of worship that is taken from Shar’i texts that should never be changed.

Regretfully, many muslims of today abandoned the authentic wordings of Tashahhud and resorted to other ones, some of them even add statements to the original ones believing them to be more beneficial. Any muslim must be aware of such abandoning for indeed our prophet Muhammad’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) deeds are the most beneficial and most sublime to which we should all adhere especially sending Salāt on him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) with its precise wording. Both Tashahhud and sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) are of the prescriptional acts [Tawqīfiyyah]; no one is allowed neither to add to nor omit a bit of them. The prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) set certain wordings for them both to be followed by all muslims. So, be -my dear muslim brother- of those who follow [the Sunnah] and not of those who change and innovate new things in it.(5)

Adding the words “Bismillāh” to the beginning of Tashahhud and “As’alullāh Al-Jannah Wa’a’ūthu Billāhi Minan Nār” [I ask Allāh to admit me to Paradise. And I seek refuge with him from Hell] to its end is also a mistake done by some muslims.

Muslim said: ‘the wording of Tashahhud was related from the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم) through many authentic narrations none of the following statements was affirmed to be mentioned in them at all’: ‘Bismillāh or Billāh in its beginning, As’alullāhal Jannah Wa ‘A’ūthu Billāhi Minan Nār at its end’.

The third:
Imām An-Nawawī said: ‘Scholars differed regarding the obligation of sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the second Tashahhud in Salāt. Abū Hanīfah, Mālik and the Jumhūr held it to be a Sunnah that if not done, one’s Salāt is still valid, while Ash-Shāfi‘ī and Ahmad regarded it to be a Wājib that if not done, one’s Salāt is rendered invalid. This is also ‘Umar’s and his son’s opinion which Ash-Sha’bī shared with them. Some scholars stated that Ash-Shāfi‘ī contradicted the Ijmā’holding such an opinion. This is not true for it is Ash-Sha‘bī’s opinion -as narrated by Al-Baihaqī.

Considering it [i.e. sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)] as an
obligation is not clearly affirmed. Ash-Shāfi’iyyah scholars support their opinion with Abī Mas’ūd’s Al-Ansārī’s narration [who stated that] the Sahābah asked the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) about the way they could send Salāt on him, to which he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) answered: ‘Say: Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)… etc . ‘And this prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) order is an obligation that must be followed.

However, this narration is not clear cut regarding the point under discussion unless it is joined with the other one which states that the Sahābah asked the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ‘what should we say when we send our Salāt on you in our Salāt ?’

He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘Say: Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)… etc’. the addition in this narration is authentic; narrated by the two great Imams Abū Hātim Ibn Hibbān Al-Bastī and Al-Hākim Abū ‘Abdillāh in their “Sahīhs” stating its authenticity. They both supported it with onther narration traced back to Fudālah Ibn ‘Ubaid to have said: ‘Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) once saw a man doing his Salāt. [when reaching Tashahhud, he started calling Allāh for his well affair], he neither praised Allāh nor glorified him, nor did he send his Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Seeing this, the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘He is hasty’. Then he called him and instructed him saying: ‘when you do your Salāt, start [your Du‘ā’] with praising and glorifying Allāh then send your Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and then call unto Allāh with that which your heart desires’.

Al-Hākim judged this Hadīth to be authentic for the conditions Muslim set for authentic narrations apply to it. Although these two narrations include acts that are not obligatory on the praying muslim such as sending one’s Salāt on the prophet’s ‘Āl [house hold] and his off spring and saying the Du‘ā’, one could – however- consider them as evidences [on the obligation of Tashahhud] for any order indicates that the thing ordered is an obligation. If parts of any order are not an obligation due to a certain evidence this does not entail that the other parts are not. Allāh knows best.

Our reverend Shāfi‘ī scholars considered saying: as ‘Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad’ Wājib, while the rest of Tashahhud is Sunnah. There is an odd opinion that states the obligation of sending Salāt on the ‘Āl [house hold] but it is not strong enough to be taken into consideration. Allāh knows best’.(6)

[Commenting on An-Nawawi’s last point,] Al-’Amīr As-San’ānī said: ‘Sending one’s Salāt on the ‘Āl is not just recommended as An-Nawawī and others stated. On the contrary; sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not complete unless a muslim recites the whole wording of it which includes the ‘Āl for [it is narrated that] the Sahābī asked the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) regarding how to send Salāt on him (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) taught him the whole wording that contains sending Salāt on both: the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his house hold.

Accordingly; whoever ignores the second part, has not fully complied with the prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) order, and so he has not actually sent Salāt on him (صلى الله عليه وسلم)’.(7)

Ibn Al-‘Arabī shared As-San’ānī his opinion considering sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as an obligation. He said: ‘Sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is an obligation to be done at least once in one’s life as agreed upon amongst scholars. As for doing it in Salāt itself, Muhammad Ibn Al-Mawwāz and Ash-Shāfi‘ī held it to be an obligation without which one’s Salāt is rendered invalid. Other ‘Ulamah held an opposite opinion; they held it to be a Sunnah. The soundest opinion is the former for it is supported by the hadīth in which the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) displayed the time and manner of sending Salāt on him.

Accordingly; this Salāt is an obligation regarding its time and manner’.(8)

Our Shaikh Al-‘Albānī shared Ibn Al-‘Arabi his opinion as stated in his “Sifat Salātun Naby”.(9) He mentioned Fudāla’s narration which An-Nawawī related- under the title ‘The obligation of Sending Salāt on the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)’ and then said: ‘It was narrated by Ahmad, Abū Dāwūd, Ibn Khuzaimah, Al-Hākim -who considered it as authentic and with which Ath-Thahabi agreed’.
Then he proceeded saying: ‘This hadīth states the obligation of
sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in this [second] Tashahhud due to the order included in it. Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ī and Ahmad in his latest views held this opinion as many Sahābah and others did before. Those who claim that Ash- Shāfi‘ī contradicted the Ijmā’has been unjust to him- as Al-Faqīh Al-Haithamī discussed in his “Ad-Durr
Al-Mandūd Fis Salati Was Salāmi ‘Ala Sāhib Al-Maqām Al-Mahmūd”.

The fourth:
Sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not restricted to the second Tashahhud; it could be recited in the first one too.
Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ī stated in “Al-’Umm”: ‘The first and the second Tashahhud have the same wordings. By the word Tashahhud I mean reciting Tashahhud followed by sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) both must be recited’.(10)

It is not of Sunnah that one limits his Tashahhud to only saying
“Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad”, one must recite one of the affirmed wordings of Tashahhud completely- as was previously reported from Al-‘Amīr As-San’ānī. (11)

In addition to that, the authentic ahādīth indicate clearly that Du‘ā’ could be recited after reciting the first Tashahhud. One of these ahādīth is the one narrated by ‘Abdullāh Ibn Mas’ūd (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to have said: ‘We used to perform Salāt and know nothing to say after the first two Rak’ahs but Tasbīh, Takbīr and Tahmīd.

Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) indeed taught us all the good things to be said.
He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘when you sit at the end of the second Rak’ah say: “Al- Tahiyyātu Lillahi Was Salawāt Wat Tayyibāt, As-Salāmu ‘Alaika Ayyuhan Naby Warahmatullāhi Wabarakātuh, As-Salāmu ‘Alainā Wa’alā Iba dillāhi As-Sālihīn. Ashhadu Anna Lā Ilaha Illā Allāh, Wa’anna Muhammadan ‘Abduhu Warasūluh”, then choose whatever you like of Du’ū’”.
(12)

The aforementioned hadīth states the legality of saying Du‘ā’ in the first Tashahhud. None of the ‘Ulamah held this opinion but Ibn Hazm- and he is right in doing so- although he depended on general texts which other ‘Ulamah could refute easily making use of specified ones. As for this hadīth, it is indeed a clear cut hadīth on the point under discussion. May Allāh have mercy on him who is just in all matters and follows the Sunnah. (13)

The fifth:
In case one’s Wudū’becomes invalid before Taslīm, one’s Salāt
is considered invalid- be it an obligatory or supererogatory one.(14)

_____________________________________________

(1) “Al-Fadlul Mubīn ‘Alā ‘Aqd Al-Jawharuth Thamīn” (p. 70). See also: “Sifat Salatun
Naby” (p. 188); Imām Al-‘Albānī reported Ibn Hajar’s words from a scripture
written by Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al-Garābīlī (b. 790 – d. 835) and kept in Al-
Maktabah Ath- Thāhiriyyah, Syria.

(2) As As-Sakhāwī stated in “Al-’Asrār Al-Marfū‘ah” (no. 585) and “Al-Masnū‘ Fī
Ma‘rifat Al-Hadīth Al-Mawdū‘“ (no. 395).

(3) Important note: In his book “At-Tirah ‘Alā Al-Gurrah” (pp. 12- 4), Al-’Alūsī said that: it is wide spread amongst the Rāfidah not to separate between the word Muhammad and the word “’Āli” with the preposition “‘Alā” depending on a forged hadīth that says: ‘ whoever separates between me and my ’Āl [house hold] with the preposition “‘Alā” will never enjoy my intercession’. Many of the Shī‘ah themselves
stated that this hadīth is a forged onbe. Accordingly, Ahlus Sunnah must a bandon the Rafidah way and pronounce the word “‘Alā” [in their Tashahhud]. See: “Mu‘jam Al-Manāhī Al-Lafthiyyah” (p. 16).

(4) For more details on the narrations regarding the wordings of Tashahhud. See: “Sifat Salātun Naby” (pp. 178 – 81).

(5) See “Dalā’il Al-Khairāt” by: Khairud Dīn Wanlī (pp. 29 – 30).

(6) “Sharh Sahīh Muslim” by An-Nawawī (vol. 4 / p. 123), see also: “Fathul Bārī” (vol.11 / p. 163..).

(7) See: “Subulus Salām” (vol. 1 / p. 193). Al-Hādī, Al-Qāsim, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and some Shāfi‘ī scholars all held it an obligation to recite the full form of the Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) after reciting Tashahhud as stated in “Naylul Awtār” (vol. 2 / p. 324).
In “Al-Qawlul Badī‘“ (pp. 90 – 1), As- Sakhāwī related from Al-Baihaqi in his “Shu‘ab” from Abī Ishāq Al-Marwazi – a great Sahfi‘ī scholar – to have said: ‘ I believe that sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his ’Āl is an obligation in the last Tashahhud of Salāt. Al-Baihaqī commented: “The affirmed ahādīth that show the way of sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) are evidences on what he believed in”.
Then he [As-Sakhāwī] said: ‘Our shaikh -Ibn Hajar- said that what At-Tahāwī mentioned in his “Mushkil” indicates that Harmalah reported this from Ash- Shāfi‘ī’.

(8) See: “Ahkāmul Qur’ān” (vol. 3 / p. 1584) and “Al-Fathur Rabbanī” (vol. 4 / p. 28).

(9) (pp. 197- 8).

(10) Al-‘Umm (vol.1 / p. 102).

(11) See: “Sifat- Salātun Naby” (p. 185).

(12) Narrated by Ahmad in “Al-Musnad” (vol. 1 / p.437), An-Nasā’ī in “Al-Mujtabā” (vol. 2 / p. 238) and At- Tabarānī in “Al-Mu‘jam Al-Kabīr” (vol. 10 / p. 57) (no.9912). Its chain of narrators is authentic- and considered connected according to the conditions set by Muslim- as is explained in “As- Silsilah As- Sahīhah” (no. 878).

(13) “Silsilat Al-’ahādīth As- Sahīhah” (vol. 2 / p. 567).

(14) “Fatāwā Ibn Taymiyyah” (vol. 22 / p. 613).

The Clarified Ruling of Mistakes done in Salat

The Clarified Ruling of Mistakes done in Salat by Shaykh Mashur Salman

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To Every Muslim
Who is keen to perform
The most important article
of Islam sincerely and properly in
Accordance with the Prophets (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
sunnah and hence gaining
the best rewards from
his Rabb (Lord)

by Shaykh Mashhur Hasan al-Salman (حفظه الله)
Translated by: Imān Zakariyah Abu Gazie

This book “The clarifying Discussion of Mistakes Done in
Salāt” discusses many mistakes that are commonly committed by
praying Muslims. The authenticity of some of which is not
established; on the contrary they are mere innovations. And others
are some optional or obligatory acts that are not done in their
proper positions or in the appropriate manner. No doubt that
plotting away false beliefs and misconceptions from peoples’ minds
and hearts by establishing truth instead, is on of the greatest paths
of calling to that which is one good [i.e. calling to Allāh aza wa jal]..

Making Tasbeeh and Dua in Congregation while Disturbing those Praying

by Mashoor Salman

It is not from the Sunnah for people to sit together after the prayer in order to recite some remembrances (dhikr) or supplications (du’aa) – those that have been reported or those that have not been reported – by raising the voice and joining in unison. This act has become the normal custom in some lands, even to the point that this tradition has become accepted, by the people, as being one of the trademarks of the Religion. It is such that anyone who abandons it or forbids others from doing it is renounced, whereas renouncing that it be abandoned is what is truly evil.

The author of As-Sunan wal-Mubtadi’aat said: “Supplicating to Allah for forgiveness in congregation, in one unified voice, after finishing the prayer is an innovation. Likewise, their saying after the supplication: “O Most Merciful of those who show mercy, have mercy on us” (Yaa Arhamar-Raahimeen Arhamnaa) in congregation is an innovation. Connecting the optional prayer with the obligatory prayer without there being a period of division between the two is forbidden, as occurs in the hadeeth of Muslim. Reciting Al-Faatihahan extra time in honor of the Prophet is an innovation. The people’s gathering together, after the morning prayer is finished, in order to say: “O Allah, save me from the Hellfire” seven times is an innovation. Similarly, their adding after this: “… and from the torment of the Hellfire, by Your grace, O All-Mighty, O All-Forgiving” is an innovation.” [1]

Ash-Shaatibee (rahimahullah) said: “The Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not used to say the supplication and the remembrances out loud immediately after prayer, all the time. Nor did he openly demonstrate doing it to the people, other than a time when it was done for the purpose of educating. This is because if he ha d done it and openly displayed it all of the time, it would have been from the Sunnah and the scholars would not have said that it is not from the Sunnah to do it, since its particularities, according to what they have stated, consist of its continuity and its being done out loud amidst the congregation of people. And it should not be said: ‘Had his supplication been done silently, it would not have been memorized from him’, for we will respond: ‘Whoever is accustomed to doing it silently, then it will definitely be exhibited from him, either because of its habit or because of his efforts to warn about its becoming obligatory.” [2]

This is as has been reported in Saheeh Al-Bukhari on Ibn ‘Abbaas that he (radyAllahu ‘anhu)) said: “Indeed, raising the voice whilst reciting dhikr, when the people would finish performing the congregational prayers, was done at the time of the Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).” [3]

Imaam An-Nawawee (rahimahullah) said: “Ash-Shaafi’ee understood this hadeeth to mean that they would raise their voices with it for a short period of time, for the purpose of honoring the attribute of dhikr. It did not mean that they would say it out loud all the time. The best opinion is that the Imaam and the ones following him in prayer should recite the dhikrin low voices (after prayer), unless there is aneed to educate others (by saying it loudly).” [4]

Ibn Bataal said: “It is stated in Al-‘Utbiyyahthat Maalik (rahimahullah) considered that to be an innovation.” [5]

Ash-Shaatibee (rahimahullah) said: “It is concluded that making du’aain the form of congregation, all the time, was not from the actions of the Messenger of Allah rnor from his statements or silent approvals.” [6]

Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) said: “As for making du’aa (supplication) after finishing the prayer, whether facing the Qiblah or facing the followers in prayer, then this was not from his (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) guidance at all. Nor has this action been reported on him whether through a saheeh or hasan chain of narration. And as for specifying that to be done in the Fajr and ‘Asr prayers, then he never did this nor did any of his Khaleefahs. Nor did his ummah direct towards its implementation. Rather, it was s imply an opinion that was put into practice, by those that held that it was to take the place after the two prayers. And as for the supplications that are connected with the prayer, then indeed he (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say them while in his prayer and he commanded others to do that also. This is what is most befitting based on the condition of the one praying, for indeed when one prays, he is facing his Lord and conversing privately with Him, so long as he remains in prayer. But when he recites the tasleem, that private counsel comes to an end and his position of being in the presence of his Lord and his nearness to Him ceases. So how is it that he can abandon asking Him while he is in the state of private counsel with Him, nearness to Him and responsiveness, and then ask Him when he finishes from performing his prayer?! There is no doubt that the opposite of this condition is better for the one praying.” [7]

One should make Istighfaar (i.e. say Astaghfirullah) three times and then say the tasbeeh, the tahmeed, and the takbeer thirty three times each and then finish that with the tahleel, after the prayer. One should observe quietness in any state he is in after the prayer, such as standing, sitting or walking. And indeed, gathering to perform that (dhikr after prayer), participating in it and raising the voice out loud whilst doing it, are all innovations. The fact that it has become a habit seems insignificant to the people. And if anyone should call them to apply these similar characteristics to any other of the acts of worship, such as the prayer for entering the masjid (two raka’aat) for example, then they would renounce him, in the utmost manner. [8]
Also from its types is what has been innovated from making dhikr after each of the two Salaams at the end of the night prayer in Ramadaan, as well as doing it in a loud voice and in one unified rhythm. For indeed that is from the innovations.
——————————————————————————————————
Footnotes
1. As-Sunan wal-Mubtadi’aat (pg. 70)
2. Al-‘Itisaam (1/351)
3. Saheeh Al-Bukhari (no. 841) and Sunan Abu Dawood (no. 1002)
4. As is reported fromhim in Fath-ul-Baaree (2/326)
5. ibid
6. Al-‘Itisaam(1/352)
7. Al-‘Itisaam(1/352)
8. See Fataawaa Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa (4/1358-1359)