Du’aa for Finishing the Recitation of the Quraan During the Night Prayer

Shaikh Uthaimeen, may Allāh have mercy on him, was asked, “What is the ruling concerning the du’aa for finishing the recitation of the Qur’an in the night prayer in Ramadaan?”

He replied, “I don’t know of any Sunnah from the Prophet ﷺ or the Companions either connected to finishing the recitation of the Quraan during the qiyaam al-lail in Ramadaan. The most that has been narrated about that is that Anas ibn Maalik, may Allāh be pleased with him, would gather his family and supplicate when he would finish reciting the whole Qur’an, and that was not in the prayer.”

Fataawaa Arkaan al-Islaam, p. 354.

GiftsofKnowledge.com

Surah al-Ikhlaas by Shaykh Abdur-Rahman As-Sa’di

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ
لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahman as-Sa’di, may Allah have mercy upon him, commenting on the proceeding surah:

قل
“Say (O Muhammed ﷺ‎)”

A precise statement with conviction, acquainted with its meaning.

هو الله أحد
“…He is Allah, (the) One.”

Meaning, the oneness is confined within (this statement of Tawheed).
Thus, Allah is Al-Ahad who is separate and unique (from creation) in his perfection which to Allah alone belongs the Most Beautiful Names, Lofty and complete Attributes and Actions that are Holy which have no parallel or equivalent.

الله الصمد
“Allah-us-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks).”

Meaning, the design with all (of creation) is to have needs. So the all the inhabitants in the higher and lower regions (of existence) are in need of Allah to the point of (the existence) is poor, asking Allah for all their necessities, asking Him concerning their most important matters.
That is because Allah is complete regarding His qualities/attributes, Al-‘Aleem whose knowledge is flawless, Al-Haleem whose patience and mild-temperedness is perfect, Ar- Raheem whose grace is whole, expanding over everything; like this are the rest of His qualities.
And from His perfection is that Allah…

لم يلد ولم يولد
“He begets not, nor was He begotten;

Due to His complete sufficiency…

ولم يكن له كفوا أحد
“And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.”

Nor in His Names, or His Attributes, or in His Actions, Tabaraka wa Ta’la. Thus this surah encompasses the Oneness of Allah’s Names and Attributes.

By Shaykh Abdur Rahman as-Sa’di (died 1376 AH)
Translated By Abu Sulaymaan Muhammad Ibn Baker

DownloadTafsir Quran Surah Ikhlas tawhid
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Explanation of Imaam Ahmeds Usool us-Sunnah by Shaykh Muhammad Al-Hajiri

أصول السنة
عقيدة الإمام أبي عبد الله أحمد بن محمد حنبل – 241 هـ

This class covers the book of Imaam Ahmad: The Foundations of the Sunnah Usul as-Sunnah. Shaykh Muhammad bin Ramzaan Al-Haajiree explains the book accompanied by an English translation Aqeedah of Abi Abdillaah Ahmed ibn Muhammed

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Usool us-Sunnah
The Aqidah of The Imaam Abi Abdillah Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal

Arabic with English Translation
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Part 01 | Part 02 | Part 03 | Part 04 | Q & A
Part 05 | Part 06 | Part 07 | Part 08 | Part 09 | Part 10
Part 11 | Part 12 | Part 13 | Part 14 | Part 15 | Part 16

Sayings of The Salaf & The Scholars of This Ummah Regarding Judgement by Other Than What Allaah Revealed

Study Notes
Abu Saifillah Abdul Qadir

As we have clarified in chapter two, the principles.  That a Muslim is not pronounced a disbeliever in Allah except if he denies or, rejects something from the religion known by necessity, or makes halaal what Allah made haram, and haram what Allah made halaal.  Or that he belittles the Sharī ‘ah, or believes he has a choice in the matter of judging by other than what Allah has revealed.

Also that kufr (disbelief) is of two types: Kufr Akbar: which is major disbelief, or kufr in belief, that takes one out of the fold of Islam. And kufr Asgar: which is minor kufr, or kufr in action, that does not take one out of the fold of Islam.

And that a Muslim is not pronounced a disbeliever by his sayings, actions or belief until the proof is established against him.

And that all the explanations of the verse in Maáidah 44 are understood within the boundaries of all the principles mentioned in chapter two and do not exceed the five sayings discussed in chapter three.

So for the noble reader now, we will bring sayings from the salaaf and scholars after them, that affirm the above information regarding the issue of not judging by what Allah has revealed.

1:  Ali Ibn Abi Talha narrates from Ibn Abaas in the tafseer of his (Allah) saying “..And whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals then such are the disbelievers “ .That which is the root in this issue he said is “ Whoever denies what Allah reveals then he has disbelieved and whoever accepts it and does not judge by it then he is a dhalim (oppressor), faasiq (sinner).[1]

2-6:  Al-Qurtabi said: That Ibn Masood and Al-Hassan said “it is general for all that do not judge by what Allah has revealed, meaning believing in that and making it halaal.” [2]

Also As-so`di and Ibraheem An-Nakaee said similar. [3]

7: And Mujaahid said regarding these three verses: “Whoever leaves judging by other than what Allah revealed rejecting the book of Allah then he is a kaafir, (disbeliever) dhaalim (oppressor), faasiq (sinner). [4]

8: And Ikraama said: “And whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals by denial of it has indeed disbelieved, and whoever accepts it and does not judge by it then he is a dhaalim, faasiq.” [5]

And Al-Khaazinu said in connection: “this is the saying of Ibn Abbaas also.” 

9: And what was mentioned above is also the opinion of Az-Zajjaaj. [6]

10: The Sheikhul Mufasireen At-Tabari said: “The foremost of these sayings with me is the saying of those who said: These verses were revealed upon the kuffar from the people of the book.  That is because of the information in the verses which come before it and after it, so upon them it was revealed. They are who were meant, by these verses and these verses bring information about them. So the fact that it brings information about them is to be taken foremost……..”[7]

11: And Al-Fakhro Ar-Raazi said: “Ikrama said: “his saying …Whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals ……….. This is regarding the one who rejects with his heart and denies with his tongue. “As for one who knows with his heart, it is the law of Allah and he accepts upon his tongue that it is the law of Allah, but he comes with something which is in opposite to that then such a person is a judge by what Allah has revealed but he is one who has left it. (Taarik lahu) so he does not belong under these verses. And this is the correct saying, and Allah knows best.” [8]

12: Az-Zamakshari said: “And whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals…..” despising it …..”Such are the disbelievers, and oppressors, and sinners, a description for them because of their transgression in their disbelief.”[9]

13: And Al-Qurtubi said: meaning, believing in that, making that haalal.  As for the one who does that whilst he believes that he is boarding something haraam then he is from the Muslims that sin.  His affair is with Allah if He wishes He will punish him, or if He wishes He will forgive him.” [10]

14: And Aboo So`ood said: “meaning, whoever does not judge with that

despising rejecting…….”then such are the disbelievers “ because of their

despise of it .” [11]

15: And Al-Nasafee said “and whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, scornfully…, then such are the disbelievers.” [12]

16: Sheikh Aboo Mansoor said: “it is permitted to mean denial in all the three verses so he would be a disbeliever, oppressor, and a sinner . This is because a complete sinner and a complete oppressor are disbelievers.”[13]

17-25: Aboo Bakr Al-Jassas said: “ and his (Allah) saying ….And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed then such are the disbelievers. “- It is not free from that its meaning is either: kufru-shirk (a disbelief that reaches the level of shirk) and kufr ul johood  (denial), or kufr-neama (a disbelief of Allah`s blessings) without denial.  So if its meaning is denial of Allah`s laws, or judging by other than it claiming that it is the law of Allah then this is kufr that takes one out the fold of Islam and its doer is an apostate if before that he was a Muslim.  Upon this is the explanation, of the one who said: That it was revealed upon the children of Israel and applied upon us, meaning – the one who denied the law of Allah or judged by other than the law of Allah then said “this is the law of Allah “such a person is a disbeliever, just as he children of Israel disbelieved when they done just that. [14]  Whilst if the meaning of it was kufru-neama (a disbelief of Allah s blessings) then the disbelief of Allahs blessings, may be because of not showing thanks to Allah for it without a denial, then its doer is not out of the fold of Islam.  That which is apparent is the first meaning (disbelief of shirk and deniel) because of his usage of the word kufr upon the one who does not judge by what Allah reveals.” [15]

26: Al-Baydaawi said: “… and whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals….` despising, in rejection of it `…..then such are the disbelieversbecause of their despise for it  and arrogance to judge by other than it.  So that is why he described them by his saying “disbelievers” and “Oppressors” and “sinners.”  Their disbelief was because of their rejection of it, and their oppression because of their judging in opposition to it, and their sin because of their transgression from it.” [16]

27: The explainer of At-Tahaawi said: “here is an issue which is an obligation to be understood and that is judging by other than what Allah has revealed at times may be disbelief (kufr) that takes one out of the fold of Islam or at times it could be major sin or minor sin and it could be relative disbelief (kufrul majaazee) or minor disbelief (kufr al-asghar) and that depends on the condition of the leader:

-If he believes that judging by Allahs law is not obligatory or that he can choose or not to choose it or he despises it with awareness that it is the law of Allah then this is major disbelief.

-but if he believes that it is an obligation to judge by what Allah has revealed and he understood it in this situation, then did not judge by it with knowledge that he is deserving of punishment ,then he is a sinner. This is called relative disbelief or minor disbelief.[17]

28: Ibn Al- Jowzi said: “And the final conclusion:

That whoever does not judge by Allah law denying it whilst he knows that Allah revealed it just as the Jews done then such a person is a disbeliever (kaafir).

And whoever does not judge by Allahs law leaning toward desire without denial then he is an oppressor (dhaalim), sinner (faasiq). Ali Ibn Abi Talha narrates from Ibn Abass that he said “whoever denies what Allah has revealed then he has disbelieved and the one who accepts it but does not judge by it then he is an oppressor (dhaalim) sinner (faasiq).” [18]

29: Shiekh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “There is no doubt that whoever does not believe in the obligation of judging by what Allah has revealed upon his messenger then he is a disbeliever.  So whoever deems it permissible to judge between the people by what he sees to be justful without following what Allah has revealed then he is a Disbeliever.  For there is no Ummah except that they have to order to  judge with justice whilst the justice in its religion may be what their respected people  see to be correct.  Furthermore many of those who originate themselves to Islam judge by their customs which Allah did not reveal, like the orders of those tribal leaders in the deserts and those obeyed amongst them and they see that, this is what is desirable to judge by, without the book and the sunnah and this is kufr (disbelief).

For indeed many of the people embrace Islam but along with this they do not judge except by their known customs and orders given to them by their leaders so these people if they knew that it was not permissible to judge except by what Allah reveals and they did not adhere to that, rather they made permissible to judge in opposition to what Allah reveals so they are the disbelievers, if not then they are ignorant.” [19]

And he also said:

“Mankind, when he makes halaal what there is consensus upon that is haraam,

Or makes haraam what there is consensus upon that is halaal, or changes the legislation which there is consensus upon.  He is a disbeliever apostate by consensus of the jurists and upon this similitude was revealed his (Allah) saying upon one of the two sayings: “And whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals then such are the disbelievers “meaning he makes halaal the judging by other than what Allah reveals.” [20]

30: The learned Imam Ibnul Qayyim al Jowzi (rahimahullaah) said: “That which is correct is -judging by other than what Allah reveals includes two types of kufr (disbelief): Minor and Major dependent upon the condition of the judge (leader).

So if he believes in the obligation of judging by what Allah revealed in this incident then abandoned it out of disobedience with awareness that he deserves to be punished then this is kufr al asghar (minor disbelief).  But if he believes that it is not obligatory or he has a choice in the matter with his understanding  that it is indeed the law of Allah then this is kufr al akbar (major disbelief). If he is ignorant of it or made a mistake in it, then he is one who made a mistake he has the ruling of those who make mistakes.” [21]

31: And Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said: …And those that do not judge by what Allah has revealed then such are the disbelieversbecause they denied the law of Allah intentionally, in opposition and deliberately.  He said right here “…then such are the oppressors “because they did not treat without discrimination the oppressed from the oppressor in the matter where Allah ordered with justice and equality between all. So they differed and oppressed and transgressed. “ [22]

32: The learned one of Shaam Ash-Sheikh Jammal ul Kaasimi (rahimahullaah) said: “disbelief of a leader that does not judge by what Allah has revealed with restricting despise and denial to it, this is the direction which many had taken and were more impressed by, from Ikrimah and Ibn Abbaas.” [23]

33: And As- Saahib ul Manaar [24] (rahimahullaah) said: “and many of the Muslims have introduced legislations, and rulings like those before them had introduced, and they abandoned- with judging by it – some of what Allah had revealed upon them.  As for those who abandon what Allah had revealed in his book from the rulings without false interpretation and they believe in its authenticity.  Then it is truly upon them, what Allah said in the three verses or in some of them. They are all accounted for, based upon their condition:

–       So whoever turns away from the ruling of punishment for theft or false accusation of fornication, or fornication, not submitting to it because of his dislike of it, and preference of other than it from the legislation of man then he is a clear kaafir (disbeliever).

–       And whoever does not judge by it due to other faults then he is a dhaalim (oppressor) if in that was the neglecting of rights, or abandonment of justice and equality in it, if not then he is a faasiq (sinner) only.

Indeed we see many of the religious Muslims believing, that the civil magistrate courts which judge with the kuffaar laws, as being disbelievers (kuffar) taking the apparent meaning of the verse And whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals then such are the disbelievers.” and they necessitate by their ronouncing of takfeer on the judge – the one who rules by the laws of the kuffar – the takfeer of the leaders, and those in authority who implement the laws of the kuffar.

For, if it was not written with their knowledge, then surely it was placed with their permission, and they are the ones who appoint the judges to rule by it.  As for the apparent meaning of the verse then no one from the well known scholars of fiqh has ever said it to mean that, rather no one had ever said that at all. !!! [25]

34: And the Sheikh Aboo Hibbatu Allah Ismaael bin Ibraheem Al-Isaredee may Allah have mercy upon him said:

“And whoever does not believe in the obligation of judging by what Allah has revealed upon his messenger, and made permissible to judge between the people by that which he sees to be justice, without adhering to what Allah has revealed then he is a disbeliever.……so these people if they knew that it was not permissible to judge except by that which Allah had revealed and then did not adhere to that, rather they made it permissible to rule in opposition to what Allah has revealed then they are disbelievers, otherwise they are ignorant, astray,  and they do not know.” [26]

35: His excellence the Sheikh Ash-Shanqitee – may Allah have mercy upon him said:

“So know that the liberating stance in this study is that kufar, dhulm, and fisq (disbelief, oppression, and sin) each one of them is expressed in the shariah to sometimes give a meaning of sin, and sometimes give a meaning of kufr that takes one outside the fold of Islam.

–       So whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed  in opposition to the messenger and invalidating the rules of Allah then his oppression, sin, and disbelief all of them takes him out of the fold of Islam.

–       And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed believing that he has boarded that which is harram (impermissible) and is ugly. His disbelief, oppression, and sin are not of that which takes him out of the fold of Islam.”[27]

36: His excellence the Sheikh As-Sa’dee may Allah have mercy upon him said:

“Judging by other than what Allah has revealed is from the actions of the people of disbelief.  It maybe the disbelief that takes one out the fold of Islam, and that is if he believes in its permissibility and its allowance.  And sometimes it maybe a major sin , and from the actions of disbelief that the doer may deserves a fierce punishment`…….And whoever does not judge by what Allah reveals then such are the disbelievers… ` Ibn Abbaas said:  kufr doona kufr (a disbelief less than the disbelief that takes one out of the fold of Islam), and dhulm doona dhulm (an oppression less than that which takes one out of the fold of Islam), and fisq doona fisq (sin less than that which takes one out of the fold of Islam). So it is a major oppression when it is made permissible, and a great major sin when it is done without it being made permissible.” [28]

37 : The Mujadid of the religion, the Imaam of the Ahla- Sunna wa al jamat Abdul Aziz bin Abdallah bin Baaz may Allah increase his days with us and benefit us by his knowledge, and give him the best of rewards in all his efforts for Islam and the Muslims.  He said:

“whoever judges by other than what Allah has revealed then he does not go out of four positions:

1) One who says that I judge by this because it is better than the Islamic Sharī ‘ah then he is a disbeliever kufar al Akbar .

2) One who says that I judge by this because it is like the Islamic Shari’ah and judging by this is permissible just as judging by the Shariah is permissible. He is a disbeliever kufar al Akbar.

3) One who says that I judge by this and the ruling of the Islamic Shari’ah is better, but the judging by other than what Allah has revealed is allowed.  He is a disbeliever kufr al Akbar.

4) One who says that I judge by this whilst he believes that judgment by other than what Allah has revealed is not allowed and he says: that the judgment of the Islamic Shariah is better, and it is not permissible to judge by other than it, but he is easy in the matter, or he does this because of an order issued from his government.  He is a disbeliever with kufr al asghar minor disbelief that does not take him out of the fold of Islam and it is considered to be from the greatest of major sins.” [29]

38: This saying has also come from the Muhadith of our time, the faqeh, the Imaam, the mujadid of Islam, the learned Sheikh Naasirud-deen Al-Albaanee, may Allah protect him, make him a source of benefit, and may Allah reward him with the best reward for his efforts with Islam and the Muslims.[30]

The opinion of the Sheikh was clearly published in the newspapers: `As-Sharq ul Awsaat` and Al Muslimoon.  The Noble sheikh Ibn Baaz commented on the opinion of Sheikh Al-Albanee and affirmed it in the above mentioned newspapers by his saying:

I have seen the beneficial reply which his eminence the Sheikh Naasirud-Deen Al Albanee had produced which was publicized in the newspapers: `As Sharq ul Awsaat` and Al Muslimoon.  Which his eminence replied as an answer for the Questioner regarding Takfeer of the one `who does not judge by what Allah has revealed without explanation.  I call it a valuable speech for indeed he spoke the truth, followed and clarified the path of the believers may Allah grant him ability. He made clear that it is not permissible for anyone to judge someone who judges by other than Allah law based just upon his action without finding out did he make it halal by his heart, and he brought of evidence for that, what was narrated by Ibn Abaas (radiyallaahu anhu) and other than him from the salaf of this Ummah…`

39: Then the speech of the two scholars [32] was read to the Imaam, the Sheikh Ibn Uthaimeen who approved of it and strengthened it.

So all these are the sayings of the scholars of old and present.  We find no difference between the early scholars and our contemporary scholars, in this dangerous issue of Takfeer.  Nothing remains after the truth except falsehood

 


[1] Narrated by Ibn Jareer in his tafseeer 19/357 No.12063 & in Ibn al Mundir &Ibn Abi Hatim. Also see Dur al Manthoor 3/87, and the Saheefa of Ali Ibn Abi Talha from Ibn Abaas 179. Imaam Ahmad said regarding this Saheefa ` in Egypt there is a Saheefa of Tafseer narrated by Ali Ibn Abi Talha, if a man travels to Egypt with an intention to see it, that would be sufficient for him.` Buccari use to rely on this Saheefa extensively for his collection of Authentic Ahadeeth in that which he narrated from Ibn Abaas. The truth is, that it is of  the most authentic chains in the tafseer of Ibn Abaas, although Ibn Abi Talha did not hear them directly from Ibn Abaas. They were known by the middle narrators whom Ibn Abi Talha took them from. For indeed he did take them from Mujaahid and Ikrama so there is no defect in that. And Allah knows best.

[2] Al Jaami le Ahkaam il Quraan 6/190 and see Ahkaam ul Quraan lil Jassas 2/533.

[3] See Tafseer At-Tabari 10/356-357

[4] See Mukhtasir Tafseer Al-Khazini 1/310.

[5] As above 10/310.

[6] See Mukhtsir Tafseer al Kaazini 1/310

[7] See Tafseer At Tabari 10/358.

[8] See Tafseer Al Kabeer 6/6

[9] Al Khashaaf 1/341

[10] Al Jaame le Ahkaam al Quraan 6/190

[11] Tafseer Aboo Su`ood 2/64

[12] At-Tafseer An Nasfee 1/285

[13] At-Tafseer An-Nasfee 1/285.

[14] (on this point it is imperative that we add the names of those who are of this saying which we found to be many,  from them are Al – Barra, Hudaayfa, Dhahaak, Qataada, Aboo Saalih, Aboo Majliz, Abaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbaa bin Masood, Aboo Ya`la Al-Faraai, so all these said that these verses are specific for the people of the book. These eight names will now be added to the list making so far a total of twenty five sayings of the scholars).

[15] Ahkaam ul Quraan of Al-Jassas 2/439.

[16] At-Tafseer ul Baaydaawi 1/268.

[17] Al-Aqeeda at Tahaawia p-323-324 With checking by Sheikh Naasir ud Deen Al-Albaanee

[18] Az-Zaad ul Maseer 2/366.

[19] Al-Minhaaj As Sunnah an Nabawia 5/130.

[20] Majmoo al Fatawa Shiek ul Islaam 3/267.

[21] Madaarij as Saalikeen 1/337.

[22] Tafseer ul Quraan al Adheem 2/61.

[23] Muhaasin at Ta`weel 6/1998.

[24] His name is Mohammad Rasheed Ridha died 1353 hj

[25] Tafseer ul Mannaar 6/405-406.

[26] Tahdheer Ahlul Imaan unil Hukm bi ghairi  maa unzal Rahmaan. P-141

[27] Adwaa al Bayaan 2/104.

[28] Tayseer ul Kareem ur Rahmaan p-2/296-297.

[29] Qadiat tu Takfeer baina Ahli Sunnah wa firq ud dalaala p-72-73.

[30] See the cassette ` Fitna tu Takfeer` and others from the recordings of the noble brother Aboo Layla Al Athery.

[31] As-Sharq ul Awsaat No. 6157 dated 12/1416 hj

[32] Sheikh Ibn Baaz and Sheikh Al-Albanee.

THE CORRECT MEANING OF THE VERSE “..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers.” [Al-Maa’idah 44]

Study Notes
Abu Saifillah Abdul Qadir

Consensus of ahlus-sunnah wal jamaa’ah upon the tafseer of the verse; “..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers (kaafiroon).” [Al-Maa`idah (5):44]

So that in which there is no difference between the former and the latter scholars regarding one who does not judge by what Allaah has revealed out of denial or making it permissible is that such an individual is a kaafir (disbeliever), out of the fold of Islam.

The principle in the verse:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the disbelievers.”

[Al-Maa`idah (5):44]

Then the scholars of tafaseer did not differ in the detailed explanation of it, except in their usage of words, so the one who has little knowledge will think that they are differing in meaning but that is not the case some of them explain by means of synonymous terms while others are straight forward in their explanation but they all mean and believe the same, which is the belief of Ahla Sunnah wal Jamaat.

So if we gather all the statements of the Mufassireen from Ahla sunnah then, their tafaseer of this verse do not exceed five sayings.  They are:

First Saying:

He who denies what Allaah has revealed has disbelieved and he who accepts it but does not judge by it then he is a dhaalim, faasiq.

This is narrated by Alee Ibn Abee Talhah, from Ibn Abbaas (radiyallaahu anhu) and similar to this is narrated by Ikrimah.[1]

Second Saying:

That the intended meaning of this verse is kufr doona kufr (disbelief less than disbelief) which does not takes one out of the fold of Islam.

From those who said this are Ibnu Abbass (radiyallaahu anhu), Taawoos and his son (rahimahumallaah), and Ataa Bin Abee Rabaaha (rahimahullaah), and Ali Bin Al-Hussain Zainul-Aabideen (rahimahullaah). [2]

And these first two sayings, there are no problems with at all.  Both of them in reality give one meaning at the end, and that is our saying: after establishment and explanation.

Third Saying:

That Allaah meant by this verse the Jews who changed the book of Allaah and its rules.

There are over nine evidences for this.  From those who said this are: Al-Baraa, Hudhayfah, Ikrimah, Dahhaak, Qataadah, Abu Saalih, Abu Mijliz, Ubaydullaah Bin Abdullaah Bin Utbaa Bin Mas’ood and most of the Mufassireen as stated by Al-Qurtubi.[3]

Also to aid this statement is the reason for the revelation of this verse, as it occurs in Saheeh Muslim.  From the hadeeth of Al-Baraa Bin Aazib (radiyallaahu anhu) who said:

“Two Jews who were tied and their faces blackened with ashes passed by the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).  So he called them and said: ‘Is this how you find the punishment for zina in your book?’  They replied: ‘Yes’.  So he called a man from amongst their scholars and said: ‘Do you swear by Allaah, the One who revealed the Tawrah to Moosaa, that this is how you find the punishment for adultery in your book?’  He said: ‘No, and if you hadn’t asked me to swear to it then I would not have informed you.  The real punishment is stoning, but it is prevalent amongst our noble ones so if we found our noble ones fornicating we left him and if we found the peasant fornicating we established the punishment on him.  So we said: ‘Come here.’  So we went to gather the noble people and the average people, and we brought the people who were tied and their faces were blackened to the place of stoning.’  Allaah’s messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Oh Allaah, I am the first to revive your law after it has passed away.’  So he ordered that they be stoned.  Then Allaah revealed:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لاَ يَحْزُنكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِن قُلُوبُهُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ هِادُواْ سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِ يَقُولُونَ

 إِنْ أُوتِيتُمْ هَـذَا فَخُذُوهُ

“O Messenger (Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam))!  Let not those who hurry to fall into disbelief grieve you, of such who say: ‘We believe’ with their mouths but their hearts have no faith.  And of the Jews are men who listen much and eagerly to lies – listen to others who have not come to you. They change the words from their places; they say, ‘If you are given this, take it, but if you are not given this, then beware!’…”

[Al-Maa’idah (5):41]

Then Allaah revealed:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

“..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers (kaafiroon).”

[Al-Maa`idah (5):44]

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

“..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the Oppressors (dhaalimoon).”

[Al-Maa`idah (5):45]

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

 “..And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disobedient (faasiqoon).”

[Al-Maa`idah (5):47]”

All three verses for them, the kuffar. [Saheeh Muslim]

As further evidence, Abu Ya’laa Al-Faraa said:

“And He (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) also made that clear when He mentioned the Jews and said:

فَإِن جَآؤُوكَ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم أَوْ

“If they come to you then judge between them or..”                     [Al-Maa’idah (5):42]

But He did not stop there, rather He (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) said:

وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ

“And we ordained for them a life for a life….”                           [Al-Maa’idah (5):45]

So when the entire story, from the beginning to the end is about the Jews, then the ayaat are about them.”[4]      

Remember here also the principle that evidence is taken from the generalisation of the words not from the specific reason for revelation.[5]

The kufr in these verses refer to everyone that does what the Jews done in their denial of some of the rulings of the shari’ah that are well established, and that is what was intended by those who made it specific to the Jews, who changed the book of Allaah.

 

This was also confirmed by Al-Jassas when he said:

“The reference is to rejecting Allaah’s judgement, or judging with other than that, while being informed of what Allaah’s judgement is.  This is the kufr that removes one from the religion, its doer is an apostate, even if he was a Muslim before that.  In this way it has been explained by those who said: ‘It was revealed for the children of Israel and it applies to us.’  They mean that whoever rejects Allaah’s judgements, or judges by other than Allaah’s judgements, then he claims: ‘This is Allaah’s judgement, then this person is a disbeliever, just as the children of Israel disbelieved when they did that.” [6]

And Al-Khaazin said:

“..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers (kaafiroon).”
[Al-Maa`idah (5):44]

“Meaning that when the Jews rejected the judgement of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) which they had texts for in the Tawrah they said: “That it was not an obligation, so they were complete disbelievers in Moosaa (alayhis-salaam) the Tawrah, and Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and the Qur’aan.” [7]

Finally the Shaykh of the Mufassireen, Ibn Jareer At-Tabaree (rahimahullaah) said:

“And the most correct of these sayings, according to me, is that which says that these ayaat were revealed about the disbelievers from the people of the Book.  Since the ayaat before and after them were revealed about them, then their meanings are understood by them, and these (earlier and latter) ayaat give information about them, so their information about them is most weighty.  Then if one was to say that Allaah mentioned it in a mode that is general for all who do not judge by what Allaah revealed, so how can you make it specific?  Then the answer is, that Allaah was general in His address about people who reject the ruling that Allaah decreed in His Book.  He informed about them – that by their avoiding to judge in the way that they had, they were disbelievers.  So in this way, it is said about all who do not judge by what Allaah revealed out of rejection to it, that he is a disbeliever in Allaah, as Ibn Abbaas said.  Because by their rejection of Allaah’s judgement after having knowledge that it was revealed in His Book, then they have rejected the Prophethood of His Prophet after they knew that he was a prophet.” [8]

So this is the meaning of the saying of Al-Hasan:

“It was revealed upon the Jews and it applies to us.”

And the saying of Ibraheem An-Nakha’ee:

“It was revealed upon the children of Israel and it applies this Ummah.” [9]

So this is the opinion of the Shaykh of the Mufassireen Ibn Jareer and Al-Qaadi Bin Ishaaq, and Aboo Su’ood, and Al-Jassaas and many others.  They all agree perfectly with what was said by Hudhayfah (radiyallaahu anhu) which was reported from him by Hamaam who said:

“We were with Hudhayfah (radiyallaahu anhu) so we mentioned: “..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers (kaafiroon).” [Al-Maa`idah (5):44].

A man from amongst the people said “Indeed this was revealed upon the children of Israel!

Then Hudhayfah (radiyallaahu anhu) said: `Yes, your brothers among the children of Israel.  You think that it gives a free licence in your case, and punishment in theirs!  Rather, by the one in whose Hand is my soul, as long as the practise is the same as the practice then the threat is the same as the threat.” [10]

And this is the opinion of Abu Mijliz and many others.  Aboo Mijliz was a major ta`bi`een, a great scholar:

“A group from the Ibaadiyyah came to sit with him, they said: ‘Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says: “..And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers (kaafiroon).” [Al-Maa`idah (5):44]…“..such are the Oppressors (dhaalimoon).” [Al-Maa`idah (5):45].. “..such are the disobedient (faasiqoon).” [Al-Maa`idah (5):47]..’

Aboo Mijliz said: ‘They (the rulers) are aware of what they do and they know that it is sinful.  – in another narration – ‘if they left any matter of it, then they know that they have sinned – and this verse was revealed upon the Jews and the Christians.`

They said: `By Allaah you truly know what we know, but you fear them.

He said: `You have more cause to be afraid then us, as for us, we do not know what you know!` They said: `you do know but that which prevents you from performing your duty is your fear of them.[11]

So Aboo Mijliz (rahimahullaah) was saying that the leaders know what they know regarding judging by other than what Allaah has revealed, and they know that it is major sin and that they are deserving a dreadful punishment.  But their desires and lusts carried them along.  So the verse does not include them in it. Because it was revealed upon those who judge by other than what Allaah has revealed out of denial and making it permissible as the Jews and Christians and whoever treads their path.  So those are the ones that leave the fold of Islam, because of their denial, and making halal, not the leaders.

But those Ibaadiyyah, and they are a sect from the Hurooree Khawarijj were not content with that and did not agree.  Rather they transgressed the boundaries of manners and continued upon what they are upon today saying: `And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed then he is a disbeliever’ without any explanation.”

This is indeed the opinion of many people today!  Oh Allaah I flee to you from ever going astray and speaking without knowledge.

Fourth and fifth saying to follow in next weeks class, in shaa’ Allaah.

Fourth Saying:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the disbelievers.”

[Al-Maa`idah (5):44]

That Allaah meant by this verse all of mankind, the Muslims and the disbelievers.

From those who say that are Ibn Mas’ood, Al-Hasan, and Ibraheem An-Nakha’ee and As-Suddi.[12]

The word: مَن  “..(man) whoever..” (in the above verse) cannot be restricted to a particular people like leaders, or politicians, or Jews or Christians, it shows clearly that it applies to all people.

Aj-Jassas said about this verse:

“Ibn Mas’ood and Al-Hasan said about this verse: “And it is general” meaning for whoever does not judge by what Allaah reveals, and judges by other than it out of choice knowing that it is the law of Allaah.  So whoever does this has disbelieved.”[13]

Al-Qurtubee (rahimahullaah) said about this verse:

Ibn Mas’ood and Al-Hasan said: “It is general for anyone who does not judge by what Allaah reveals from the Muslims, and the Jews and the disbelievers.” meaning believing in that and making it permissible.[14]

And Aboo Hayyaan said:

“And As-Su’oodee said: “Whoever opposes the law of Allaah and abandoned it deliberately and went beyond it with knowledge, then he is truly from the disbelievers.”  This is because of the denial so it is kufr the opposite of Eemaan. [15]

He also said:

And that it is general for the Jews and other than them is the opinion of Ibn Mas’ood, and Ibraheem, and Aathaai and many others.  But it is KufrdoonaKufr (a disbelief less than disbelief which takes you out the fold of Islam) and Dhulm-doona-Dhulm (an oppression less than the oppression which takes one out the fold of Islam) and Fisq-doona-Fisq (a sin which does not take you out the fold of Islam) meaning the kufr (disbelief) of a Muslim is not like that of a kaafir (disbeliever).  Similarly his dhulm and fisq does not take him out the fold of Islam.”[16]

And Ibn Aatheea said:

“And a great number of people of knowledge said: The verse incorporates everyone that does not judge by what Allaah reveals, but for the leaders of this Ummah it is Kufr-al-Maasia (major sin only) it does not take them out of Imaan.” [17]

So it is imperative to know here that it was the Mufassiroon that placed the above restriction of the verse, regarding the leaders.  Whilst at the same time they were the ones who made the verse general to everyone else.  This means that for the leader it can only be kufr al Ashgar (minor kufr), and as for everyone else then it could at times be kufr al Ashgar or at times be kufr al akbar.

Fifth Saying:

That Allaah meant by the first verse of Soorah Al-Maa’idah (verse 44): the Muslims, where He said at the end that “…such are the disbelievers (kaafiroon).”  The Jews by the second verse (verse 45) where He said “….such are the oppressors “(dhalimoon).”  The Christians by the following two verses (verse 46-47) where He said: “…such are the sinners “(fasiqoon).”

This is the saying of Ash-Shaa`bi. [18]

This is also the opinion of Ibn Araabi al Maaliki. [19]

Abu Hayaan said: “And it is as if He specified every general statement by the verse which came after it.

When before the first statement: “… such are the disbelievers (kafiroon)” He said “so if they come to you then judge between them or…” “..And if you judge then judge..”… (to His final saying)….”…and whosoever does not judge by what Allaah reveals such are the disbelievers (kafiroon)”

And before the second statement “……such are the oppressors (dhalimoon)” He said “ …and we ordained therein for them a life for a life..” (to his final saying) ”..and whosoever does not judge by what Allaah reveals such are the oppressors (dhalimoon).”

And before the third statement “..such are the sinners (fasiqoon).”

He said: “..and in their footsteps we sent Jesus son of Mary confirming the Tawrah that had come before him..” (to His saying) “..and whosoever does not judge by what Allaah reveals such are the sinners (fasiqoon).” [20]

This statement is understood just as the previous one that the kufr of the Muslims is kufr maasia (major sin) or kufr-doona- kufr (a kufr that does not take one out of the fold of Islam) otherwise the apparent state of the Muslims would be more evil than the people of the Book.  This is how the people of knowledge explained it.

Al-Aloosi said:

“Ibn Hameed and others narrate from As-Sha`bi that he said: “the three verses that are in Al-Maa’idah: The first one is for this Ummah.  The second is for the Jews.  The third is for the Christians.”

This dictates that the believers are in an evil condition, worse than the Jews and the Christians.  Except that if it was said: “that kufr if it is directed to the believers then it is carried as harshness, and a disbeliever if he is described with fisq (sin) and dhulm (oppression) then it shows his arrogance and his disobedience in it.[21]

THE CONCLUSION OF THE FIVE SAYINGS AND CONCENSUS UPON ITS MEANING: 

There is no real difference in the reality of its meaning or its explanation.  Rather all of them come out from one niche.  If there begins differences in the apparent usage of words then it is permissible differing (ikhtilaaf-at-tanowwaa), not the impermissible differing (ikhtilaaf-u-tadaad), and we praise Allaah for this.

As for the apparent meaning of the verse then no one from the well known people of knowledge explained it to mean what it apparently says.  Rather no one at all had ever done so.[22]

The Consensus:    

It has been narrated that: A man from the khawaarij entered upon Al-Mamoon. So Mamoon said to him: “What caused you to differ with us?”  He said: “A verse in the book of Allaah.”  Then Mamoon asked: “Which one?”  The man replied: “Whoever does not judge by what Allaah reveals then such are the disbelievers.”  So Mamoon said to him: “Do you have evidence that it was revealed?”  He replied: “Yes.”  So he said: “Then what is your evidence?”  He replied: “Consensus of the Ummah.”  So he said: “then as you accepted their consensus that it was revealed, then accept their consensus in the explanation.”  He replied: “You spoke the truth.  Assalaamu alaikum O Ameerul-Mumineen.” [23]

Summary Of The Five Sayings Of All The Mufassireen

1. He who denies what Allaah has revealed has disbelieved and he who accepts it but does not judge by it then he is a dhaalim, faasiq.

2. That the intended meaning of this verse is kufr doona kufr disbelief less than disbelief which does not takes you out the fold of Islam.

3. That Allaah meant by this verse the Jews who changed the book of Allaah and its rules.

4. That Allaah meant by this verse all of mankind, the Muslims and the disbelievers.

5. That Allaah meant by the first verse of Soorah Al-Maa’idah (verse 44) the Muslims, where He said at the end that “…such are the disbelievers (kafiroon).”  The Jews by the second verse (verse 45) where He said “….such are the oppressors (dhalimoon).”  The Christians by the following two verses (verse 46-47) where He said “…such are the sinners (fasiqoon).”

If one was to study all the tafaseers of this verse:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the disbelievers.”
[Al-Maa`idah (5):44]

Then none of his findings will go out of the above five saying.

In conclusion it can clearly be seen that a leader who does not judge by what Allaah has revealed does not leave the fold of Islam unless he falls under point 1 (first saying) only.  As for point 4 (fourth saying) though it is general according to some mufassireen so incorporates leaders as well, it is restricted to a kufarmasiayah for the leaders which does not take them out the fold of Islam.


[1] See al-Hukmu bighairi maa anzallallaahu of Shaykh Khaalid Al-Anbaree p64 third edition

[2] ibid p76

[3] See Tafseer at Tabari (10/346-353), Tafseer Al-Qurtubee (6/190), and ad-Durr al- Manthoor (3/87) and other books of tafseer.

[4] Masaa’ilul-Eemaan (340-341)

[5] Even if one was to take from the specific reason for revelation, he would find that it was revealed upon the Jews not on the muslims

[6] Ahkaamul Qur’aan (2/439)

[7] Mukhtasir Tafseerul Khaazin (1/310)

[8] Tafseer At-Tabaree (10/358)

[9] See Tafseer At-Tabaree (10/356-357) and Ad-Durrul Manthoor (3/87-88)

[10] Narrated by Al Haakim in Al-Mustadraq (2/312) & Al Waqee (1/39) & Al- Marwazi in As Sunnah p65

[11] Narrated by At-Tabbaree in his tafseer (10/347) and Abu Ash-Shaykh and Abdu Bin Hameed as in Durul Manthoor (3/88)

[12] See al-Hukmu bighairi maa anzallallaahu of Shaykh Khaalid Al-Anbaree p-88

[13] Ahkaamul Qur’aan (2/533)

[14] Al Jaami li Ahkaam Al-Qur’aan (6/190)

[15] Al Bahr ul Muheeth 3/493

[16] Al Bahr ul Muheeth (3/492)

[17] Al Muharrar al Wajeez (4/456)

[18] Narrated by Ibn Jareer At-Tabari in his tafseer (10/353-354)

[19] See Ahkaamul Qur’aan (2/624)

[20] Al Bahr ul Muheeth (3/493)

[21] Ar Rooh ul Maani (3/146)

[22] Tafseer al- Manaar (6/406)

[23] Al Khateeb al Bagdaadi in Tareeq il Bagdaad (10/186), & As Suyooti in Tareeq il Khulafaa (296-297), and ad Dhahabee mentioned it in Seer Aalam an Nubala (10/280)

Extremism in Takfeer – Principle Six

Study Notes
Abu Saifillah Abdul Qadir

PRINCIPLE SIX

We judge the rulers only by that which is apparent, and leave that which is not apparent to Allaah for indeed He alone knows the inner most affairs of all people.

This principle dictates that we cannot venture into the leaders hearts, and speak of those things which we have no apparent evidence for, so we would indeed be sinning if we spoke of his actions which pertain to his heart, i.e love, hope, fear, etc. we can only speak of the apparent effects of this.[1]

EVIDENCE FOR PRINCIPLE SIX

 Imaam At-Tahaawi (rahimahullaah) states in his famous book of Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah:

 “And we do not testify against them with kufr nor with shirk nor hypocrisy just so long as these are not apparent from them and we leave their unapparent affairs to Allaah.”[2]

 So in explanation of this Ibn Abi Izza said:

“This is because we have been ordered to judge that which is apparent and we have been prohibited from suspicion, and following that which we have no knowledge of, as Allaah said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْرًا مِّنْهُمْ

“O you who believe!  Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former..” [Al-Hujuraat (49):11]

And Allaah also said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ

“O you who believe!  Avoid much suspicions, indeed some suspicions are sins..” [Al-Hujuraat (49):12]

And Allaah said:

وَلاَ تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولـئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُولاً

“And follow not (O man i.e., say not, or do not or witness not, etc.) that of which you have no knowledge (e.g. one’s saying: “I have seen,” while in fact he has not seen, or “I have heard,” while he has not heard).  Verily!  The hearing, and the sight, and the heart, of each of those you will be questioned (by Allaah).” [Al-Israa’ (17):36]

Imaam At-Tahaawi (rahimahullaah) also said:

“And we do not pronounce takfeer upon anyone from the people of Qibla by these sins, as long as they do not make them halaal, and we do not say that one who sins his imaan is not harmed.” [3]

(This is also a refutation of the Murjia whom we are accused of being)

 What is meant by “people of Qibla” in his above saying is: We name our people of the Qibla Muslims, Mu’mins [as long as they hold up to what the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) came with knowingly, and that they believe in everything he said, and informed of].  The shaykh (rahimahullaah) is pointing out by this statement a refutation to the Khawaarij who pronounce takfeer on the one who does sin.[4]

 


[1] Every action does not necessarily dictate the action of the heart. i.e. a father smacking his child (an action of the limbs) does not mean he hates ( an action of the heart) his child.

[2] Sharhul Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah p-378 by Ibn Abi Izza al Hanafi checked by Shaykh Naasirud-Deen Al-Albanee

[3] Sharhul Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah p-316 by Ibn Abi Izza al Hanafi

[4] Sharhul Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah p-316 by Ibn Abi Izza al Hanafi

Extremism in Takfeer – Principle Three

Study Notes
Abu Saifillah Abdul Qadir

PRINCIPLE THREE

Kufr is of two types;

  1. Kufr in belief, that takes one out of the fold of Islam. It is also referred to as major kufr.
  2. Kufr in action, that does not take one out of the fold of Islam on its own except, if after the establishment of the proof, his actions portray manifest denial, rejection, arrogance, etc. It is also referred to as minor kufr.

So this principle necessitates the establishment, of whether the judgement by other than what Allaah has revealed, falls under the type of kufr in belief which is rejection, denial, or making it permissible or even believing that one has a choice in the matter. Or does it fall under the type of kufr in action that does not make you a kaafir. Therefore if the scholars of Islam judge that the kufr in a particular instance was kufr in action then we would have indeed lied against Allaah if we were to make them unbelievers.

EVIDENCE FOR PRINCIPLE THREE

If kufr was not of two types then how would we understand the hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Abusing a Muslim is fisq (sin) and fighting him is kufr.”

[Agreed upon]

So is this fighting kufr in belief or kufr in action, bearing in mind that if it is kufr in belief, then the person who does this act becomes a disbeliever (kaafir)? The answer is clearly that it is kufr in action, the minor kufr which does not remove one from the fold of Islam, and this is established from Allaah’s statement;

“And if two parties from amongst the believers fight then make peace between them, and if one transgresses then fight you all the one which transgresses till it complies with the command of Allaah.”

[Al-Hujuraat (49):9]

So we find Allaah describing those Muslims that fight each other as believers.  Therefore fighting amongst believers is kufr in action or minor kufr and cannot be kufr in belief or major kufr. Each and every verse in the Qur’aan and the hadith that mentions kufr must be verified to find out what type of kufr it is. This is a task for the scholars alone and not the common people. Other examples of such cases can be found in the following authentic ahadeeth, where all the examples are of kufr in action or minor kufr.

“Two things if done are kufr, abusing of genealogies and wailing over the dead.”

[Saheeh Muslim]

“Arguing over the Qur’aan is kufr.”

“Speaking about Allaah’s favours is giving thanks and leaving that is kufr.”

“Do not return to being kaafir after me by some of you striking the necks of others (fighting).”

[Al-Bukhaaree]

“Whoever goes into his women from behind (anus) has indeed done kufr.”

And also the statement of Allaah:

“Whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed such are the disbelievers.”

[Al-Maa’idah (5):44]

Like this there are many more verses and ahadeeth, like the ones mentioned in chapter one that need to be explained by tafseer or hadeeth using principles of the Shari’ah in order to arrive at the correct ruling. A work only befitting for scholars. So this is where many of the Muslims become confused and are lead astray. They try to implement the verses of Surah Al-Maa’idah and other texts, as they are, apparently, without applying the principle that the kufr mentioned in the text can be one of two types.

Extremism in Takfeer – Principle Two

Study Notes
Abu Saifillah Abdul Qadir

PRINCIPLE TWO

The issue of Takfeer is grave, so one should be cautious in this matter and not rush to pronounce the Muslim leaders as kaafirs. The issue of takfeer should be taken very seriously and not bear on emotional happenings. There is a great possibility the person being labelled may not deserve it.

EVIDENCE FOR PRINCIPLE TWO

Firstly to show that there is a possibility that a person may show apparent disbelief but really his heart is full of belief, and it would be very dangerous for one to pronounce takfeer upon him without establishing what he truly believes first. Allaah says:

“Whoever disbelieved in Allaah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto, whilst his heart is at rest with faith (imaan) but such as open their hearts to disbelief – on them is wrath from Allaah and theirs will be a great torment.”

[An-Nahl (16):106]

The statement of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam):

“He who says to his brother: O disbeliever, then it returns upon one of them.”

[Bukhaaree, Muslim and Muwatta Imaam Maalik]

Also his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“And he who accuses a believer of kufr then it is like killing him.”

[Bukhaaree]

Also his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“…..Except if you see clear open kufr, given to you as evidence from Allaah..”

[Muslim, An-Nasaa’ee]

And his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“if a man says the people are destroyed, then he has destroyed them…”

[Muslim]

Also his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“Everything of a Muslim is sacred to a Muslim: his property, honour, and blood. It is enough evil for a man to despise his Muslim brother.”

[Aboo Daawood: 4868]

And his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“I warn you of suspicion, for indeed suspicion is the most lying speech.”

[Agreed upon]

And his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“Whoever accuses a man of kufr, or says enemy of Allaah, and he is not that, then it returns upon him.”

[Agreed upon]

And his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“If anyone guards a believer from a hypocrite, Allaah will send an angel who will guard his flesh on the day of judgment from the fire of Jahannam; but if anyone attacks a Muslim, saying something by which he wishes to disgrace him he will be restrained by Allaah on the bridge over Jahannam till he is accounted for what he said.”

[Aboo Daawood: 4865]

And the saying of Shaykhul-Islaam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah):

“I am one of the most severe in forbidding that a person in particular be labelled with disbelief, or sin or disobedience until it is known that the proof has been established upon him….”

[Al Fatawa 3/229 and see Al Fatawa 3/282, 283 (a principle with Ahlus-Sunnah)]

Extremism in Takfeer – Principle One

Study Notes
Abu Saifillah Abdul Qadir

PRINCIPLE ONE

This principle is to stand out for justice and not allowing one’s emotions, desires, hatred, and ignorance dictate the position one is going to hold regarding the issue of takfeer.

This principle dictates not allowing the poor situation of the Muslims around the world i.e., Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia etc. dictate one’s position that is held, and to not allow one’s hatred for a people i.e. leaders of Muslim countries, make him unjust to them, even though we see from them manifest dhulm, fisq, and kufr.

EVIDENCE FOR PRINCIPLE ONE

The evidences for this principle are many. Of them is the statement of Allaah:

“And if you judge between the people, then judge with justice.” 

[An-Nisaa’ (4):58]

The verse orders fairness, justice, and equality with all people when making judgement between them, and not being just with some people and not with others.

Indeed Allaah ordered his messenger with a straightforward command to be just by His saying:

“…And I have been ordered to be just between you all.”

[Ash-Shoora (15):42]

Also Allaah has ordered the believers to be just by His saying:

“..Be just for it is closer to taqwa…”

[Al-Maa’idah (5):8]

And Allaah, the Most High also states:

“Verily Allaah orders with justice and the doing of good and kindness to relatives”

[An-Nahl (16):90]

Allaah has specifically ordered all the believers to be just in their speech by His saying;

“..And if you speak then be just even if it be with your own relatives”

[Al-An’aam (6):152]

Ibn Katheer said in the tafseer of this verse:

“Allaah orders to be just in actions and sayings with our near ones and our far ones and Allaah orders everyone to be just at all times and in all situations.”

So His order to be just in our actions is in His saying:

“Oh you who believe stand out firmly for justice as witnesses to Allaah even if it is against yourselves or your parents, or your kin..”

[An-Nisaa’ (4):135]

And Allaah has warned us not to be unjust, ever, in His statement:

“…So do not follow the desires lest you avoid justice…”

[An-Nisaa’ (4):135]

Ibn Katheer said in the tafseer of this verse:

“Meaning, do not let the desires and partisanship and hatred of a people cause you to be unjust in your matters and your affairs rather adhere to justness in every situation.”

So being just plays an important role when speaking about people, and it is more important when pronouncing takfeer.