Adding the word “Sayyiduna” to Tashahhud or when sending Salāt on the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

by Shaykh Mashur Hasan Salman

Shaikh Muhammad Jamālud Dīn Al-Qāsimī said:
‘The ‘Ulamah differed amongst themselves regarding the word “Sayyidunā” when sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

Imām Ibn Hajar was asked regarding this point and he answered in a very convincing manner. The following paragraphs present the question and the answer.

The question: Is it an obligation in Salāt or outside Salāt that a muslim says the word “Sayyiduna” when sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) such as to say: “Allāh humma Sallī ‘Alā Sayyidinā Muhammad” or “‘Alā Sayyidil khalq” [the master of the creation] or should one only say: “Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad”? which one is better??

The answer: ‘Indeed following the affirmed wording of [any] Thikr is better. Some falsely raised that the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) abandoned this word out of his humbleness, but muslims should say it. Were this hypothesis true, the Sahābah and Tābi’īn would have said it and nothing of such a thing was affirmed though many of them reported the Tashahhud. And also pay heed to the great eminent ‘Ālim Ash-Shāfi’i’s statement with which he commenced his book – to which all his followers adhere- he said: ‘Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad’.(1)

* Important Notes:
It is worth mentioning here the following points:

The first:
The hādīth that states: “Lā Tusayyidūnī Fī As-Salāt” [i.e. Never say “Master” in your Salāt] is a forged one, even the word “Tusayyidūnī” is linguistically incorrect; the proper derivation of the word should be “Tusawwidūnī” [i.e. call me master]. This hadīth is a forged one that has no basis whatsoever (2) regarding Isnād and Matn. were it authentic, we would have used it as a proof for the point under discussion.

The second:
Many Muslims mix the forms of Tashahhud and come up with a new one that runs as follows: ‘Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad Wa’alā ‘Āl: Muhammad, Kamā Sallayt ‘Alā Ibrāhīm Wa’alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Fil ‘Ālamīn. Innaka Hamīdun Majīd’.
This new mixed wording of Tashahhud is illegal for any act of worship should be taken from the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), no more no less, and the previous wording of Tashahhud was not affirmed to be of the prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) Sunnah; on the contrary it is a mixture of two Sahr’ wordings.

The first: ‘Allāumma Salli ‘Alā Muhammad, Wa’alā(3) ‘Āli Muhammad, Kamā Sallaita ‘Alā Ibrāhīm Wa’alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Innaka Hamidun Majīd. Allāhumma Bārik ‘Alā Muhammad Wa’alā ‘Āli Muhammad Kamā Bārakta ‘Alā Ibrāhīm Wa’alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Innaka Hamīdun Majīd’.

The second: ‘Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad {An – Naby Al-’Ummī} Wa’alā ‘Āli Muhammad, Kama Sallayta ‘Alā {‘Āli} Ibrāhīm, Wabārik ‘Alā Muhammad {An – Naby Al-’Ummi} Wa’alā ‘Āli Muhammad, Kamā Barakta ‘Alā ‘Āli Ibrāhīm. Fil ‘Ālamīn Innaka Hamīdun Majīd’.(4)

When a muslim recites one of the wordings of Tashahhud, he should stick to its wording, with no addition or omission, for Tashahhud is an act of worship that is taken from Shar’i texts that should never be changed.

Regretfully, many muslims of today abandoned the authentic wordings of Tashahhud and resorted to other ones, some of them even add statements to the original ones believing them to be more beneficial. Any muslim must be aware of such abandoning for indeed our prophet Muhammad’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) deeds are the most beneficial and most sublime to which we should all adhere especially sending Salāt on him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) with its precise wording. Both Tashahhud and sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) are of the prescriptional acts [Tawqīfiyyah]; no one is allowed neither to add to nor omit a bit of them. The prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) set certain wordings for them both to be followed by all muslims. So, be -my dear muslim brother- of those who follow [the Sunnah] and not of those who change and innovate new things in it.(5)

Adding the words “Bismillāh” to the beginning of Tashahhud and “As’alullāh Al-Jannah Wa’a’ūthu Billāhi Minan Nār” [I ask Allāh to admit me to Paradise. And I seek refuge with him from Hell] to its end is also a mistake done by some muslims.

Muslim said: ‘the wording of Tashahhud was related from the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم) through many authentic narrations none of the following statements was affirmed to be mentioned in them at all’: ‘Bismillāh or Billāh in its beginning, As’alullāhal Jannah Wa ‘A’ūthu Billāhi Minan Nār at its end’.

The third:
Imām An-Nawawī said: ‘Scholars differed regarding the obligation of sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the second Tashahhud in Salāt. Abū Hanīfah, Mālik and the Jumhūr held it to be a Sunnah that if not done, one’s Salāt is still valid, while Ash-Shāfi‘ī and Ahmad regarded it to be a Wājib that if not done, one’s Salāt is rendered invalid. This is also ‘Umar’s and his son’s opinion which Ash-Sha’bī shared with them. Some scholars stated that Ash-Shāfi‘ī contradicted the Ijmā’holding such an opinion. This is not true for it is Ash-Sha‘bī’s opinion -as narrated by Al-Baihaqī.

Considering it [i.e. sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)] as an
obligation is not clearly affirmed. Ash-Shāfi’iyyah scholars support their opinion with Abī Mas’ūd’s Al-Ansārī’s narration [who stated that] the Sahābah asked the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) about the way they could send Salāt on him, to which he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) answered: ‘Say: Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)… etc . ‘And this prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) order is an obligation that must be followed.

However, this narration is not clear cut regarding the point under discussion unless it is joined with the other one which states that the Sahābah asked the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ‘what should we say when we send our Salāt on you in our Salāt ?’

He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘Say: Allahumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)… etc’. the addition in this narration is authentic; narrated by the two great Imams Abū Hātim Ibn Hibbān Al-Bastī and Al-Hākim Abū ‘Abdillāh in their “Sahīhs” stating its authenticity. They both supported it with onther narration traced back to Fudālah Ibn ‘Ubaid to have said: ‘Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) once saw a man doing his Salāt. [when reaching Tashahhud, he started calling Allāh for his well affair], he neither praised Allāh nor glorified him, nor did he send his Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Seeing this, the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘He is hasty’. Then he called him and instructed him saying: ‘when you do your Salāt, start [your Du‘ā’] with praising and glorifying Allāh then send your Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and then call unto Allāh with that which your heart desires’.

Al-Hākim judged this Hadīth to be authentic for the conditions Muslim set for authentic narrations apply to it. Although these two narrations include acts that are not obligatory on the praying muslim such as sending one’s Salāt on the prophet’s ‘Āl [house hold] and his off spring and saying the Du‘ā’, one could – however- consider them as evidences [on the obligation of Tashahhud] for any order indicates that the thing ordered is an obligation. If parts of any order are not an obligation due to a certain evidence this does not entail that the other parts are not. Allāh knows best.

Our reverend Shāfi‘ī scholars considered saying: as ‘Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad’ Wājib, while the rest of Tashahhud is Sunnah. There is an odd opinion that states the obligation of sending Salāt on the ‘Āl [house hold] but it is not strong enough to be taken into consideration. Allāh knows best’.(6)

[Commenting on An-Nawawi’s last point,] Al-’Amīr As-San’ānī said: ‘Sending one’s Salāt on the ‘Āl is not just recommended as An-Nawawī and others stated. On the contrary; sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not complete unless a muslim recites the whole wording of it which includes the ‘Āl for [it is narrated that] the Sahābī asked the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) regarding how to send Salāt on him (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) taught him the whole wording that contains sending Salāt on both: the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his house hold.

Accordingly; whoever ignores the second part, has not fully complied with the prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) order, and so he has not actually sent Salāt on him (صلى الله عليه وسلم)’.(7)

Ibn Al-‘Arabī shared As-San’ānī his opinion considering sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as an obligation. He said: ‘Sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is an obligation to be done at least once in one’s life as agreed upon amongst scholars. As for doing it in Salāt itself, Muhammad Ibn Al-Mawwāz and Ash-Shāfi‘ī held it to be an obligation without which one’s Salāt is rendered invalid. Other ‘Ulamah held an opposite opinion; they held it to be a Sunnah. The soundest opinion is the former for it is supported by the hadīth in which the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) displayed the time and manner of sending Salāt on him.

Accordingly; this Salāt is an obligation regarding its time and manner’.(8)

Our Shaikh Al-‘Albānī shared Ibn Al-‘Arabi his opinion as stated in his “Sifat Salātun Naby”.(9) He mentioned Fudāla’s narration which An-Nawawī related- under the title ‘The obligation of Sending Salāt on the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)’ and then said: ‘It was narrated by Ahmad, Abū Dāwūd, Ibn Khuzaimah, Al-Hākim -who considered it as authentic and with which Ath-Thahabi agreed’.
Then he proceeded saying: ‘This hadīth states the obligation of
sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in this [second] Tashahhud due to the order included in it. Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ī and Ahmad in his latest views held this opinion as many Sahābah and others did before. Those who claim that Ash- Shāfi‘ī contradicted the Ijmā’has been unjust to him- as Al-Faqīh Al-Haithamī discussed in his “Ad-Durr
Al-Mandūd Fis Salati Was Salāmi ‘Ala Sāhib Al-Maqām Al-Mahmūd”.

The fourth:
Sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not restricted to the second Tashahhud; it could be recited in the first one too.
Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ī stated in “Al-’Umm”: ‘The first and the second Tashahhud have the same wordings. By the word Tashahhud I mean reciting Tashahhud followed by sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) both must be recited’.(10)

It is not of Sunnah that one limits his Tashahhud to only saying
“Allāhumma Sallī ‘Alā Muhammad”, one must recite one of the affirmed wordings of Tashahhud completely- as was previously reported from Al-‘Amīr As-San’ānī. (11)

In addition to that, the authentic ahādīth indicate clearly that Du‘ā’ could be recited after reciting the first Tashahhud. One of these ahādīth is the one narrated by ‘Abdullāh Ibn Mas’ūd (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to have said: ‘We used to perform Salāt and know nothing to say after the first two Rak’ahs but Tasbīh, Takbīr and Tahmīd.

Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) indeed taught us all the good things to be said.
He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘when you sit at the end of the second Rak’ah say: “Al- Tahiyyātu Lillahi Was Salawāt Wat Tayyibāt, As-Salāmu ‘Alaika Ayyuhan Naby Warahmatullāhi Wabarakātuh, As-Salāmu ‘Alainā Wa’alā Iba dillāhi As-Sālihīn. Ashhadu Anna Lā Ilaha Illā Allāh, Wa’anna Muhammadan ‘Abduhu Warasūluh”, then choose whatever you like of Du’ū’”.
(12)

The aforementioned hadīth states the legality of saying Du‘ā’ in the first Tashahhud. None of the ‘Ulamah held this opinion but Ibn Hazm- and he is right in doing so- although he depended on general texts which other ‘Ulamah could refute easily making use of specified ones. As for this hadīth, it is indeed a clear cut hadīth on the point under discussion. May Allāh have mercy on him who is just in all matters and follows the Sunnah. (13)

The fifth:
In case one’s Wudū’becomes invalid before Taslīm, one’s Salāt
is considered invalid- be it an obligatory or supererogatory one.(14)

_____________________________________________

(1) “Al-Fadlul Mubīn ‘Alā ‘Aqd Al-Jawharuth Thamīn” (p. 70). See also: “Sifat Salatun
Naby” (p. 188); Imām Al-‘Albānī reported Ibn Hajar’s words from a scripture
written by Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al-Garābīlī (b. 790 – d. 835) and kept in Al-
Maktabah Ath- Thāhiriyyah, Syria.

(2) As As-Sakhāwī stated in “Al-’Asrār Al-Marfū‘ah” (no. 585) and “Al-Masnū‘ Fī
Ma‘rifat Al-Hadīth Al-Mawdū‘“ (no. 395).

(3) Important note: In his book “At-Tirah ‘Alā Al-Gurrah” (pp. 12- 4), Al-’Alūsī said that: it is wide spread amongst the Rāfidah not to separate between the word Muhammad and the word “’Āli” with the preposition “‘Alā” depending on a forged hadīth that says: ‘ whoever separates between me and my ’Āl [house hold] with the preposition “‘Alā” will never enjoy my intercession’. Many of the Shī‘ah themselves
stated that this hadīth is a forged onbe. Accordingly, Ahlus Sunnah must a bandon the Rafidah way and pronounce the word “‘Alā” [in their Tashahhud]. See: “Mu‘jam Al-Manāhī Al-Lafthiyyah” (p. 16).

(4) For more details on the narrations regarding the wordings of Tashahhud. See: “Sifat Salātun Naby” (pp. 178 – 81).

(5) See “Dalā’il Al-Khairāt” by: Khairud Dīn Wanlī (pp. 29 – 30).

(6) “Sharh Sahīh Muslim” by An-Nawawī (vol. 4 / p. 123), see also: “Fathul Bārī” (vol.11 / p. 163..).

(7) See: “Subulus Salām” (vol. 1 / p. 193). Al-Hādī, Al-Qāsim, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and some Shāfi‘ī scholars all held it an obligation to recite the full form of the Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) after reciting Tashahhud as stated in “Naylul Awtār” (vol. 2 / p. 324).
In “Al-Qawlul Badī‘“ (pp. 90 – 1), As- Sakhāwī related from Al-Baihaqi in his “Shu‘ab” from Abī Ishāq Al-Marwazi – a great Sahfi‘ī scholar – to have said: ‘ I believe that sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his ’Āl is an obligation in the last Tashahhud of Salāt. Al-Baihaqī commented: “The affirmed ahādīth that show the way of sending Salāt on the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) are evidences on what he believed in”.
Then he [As-Sakhāwī] said: ‘Our shaikh -Ibn Hajar- said that what At-Tahāwī mentioned in his “Mushkil” indicates that Harmalah reported this from Ash- Shāfi‘ī’.

(8) See: “Ahkāmul Qur’ān” (vol. 3 / p. 1584) and “Al-Fathur Rabbanī” (vol. 4 / p. 28).

(9) (pp. 197- 8).

(10) Al-‘Umm (vol.1 / p. 102).

(11) See: “Sifat- Salātun Naby” (p. 185).

(12) Narrated by Ahmad in “Al-Musnad” (vol. 1 / p.437), An-Nasā’ī in “Al-Mujtabā” (vol. 2 / p. 238) and At- Tabarānī in “Al-Mu‘jam Al-Kabīr” (vol. 10 / p. 57) (no.9912). Its chain of narrators is authentic- and considered connected according to the conditions set by Muslim- as is explained in “As- Silsilah As- Sahīhah” (no. 878).

(13) “Silsilat Al-’ahādīth As- Sahīhah” (vol. 2 / p. 567).

(14) “Fatāwā Ibn Taymiyyah” (vol. 22 / p. 613).

Important Books For The Seeker of Knowledge

Praise be to Allaah.

1) – ‘Aqeedah (basic tenets of faith):

1- Thalaathat al-Usool

2- Al-Qawaa’id al-Arba’ah

3- Kashf al-Shubahaat

4- Al-Tawheed

These four books were written by Shaykh al-Islam Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab (may Allaah have mercy on him).

5- Al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah which deals with Tawheed al-Asmaa’ wa’l-Sifaat (The Oneness of the Divine names and attributes). This is one of the best books written on this topic, and it is worth reading and studying.

6- Al-Hamawiyyah

7- Al-Tadmuriyyah

These two books are more comprehensive than al-Waasitiyyah. These three books were written by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah.

8- Al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah, by Shaykh Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahhaawi

9- Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah by Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abi’l-‘Izz

10-Al-Durar al-Saniyyah fi’l-Ajoobah al-Najdiyyah, compiled by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Qaasim (may Allaah have mercy on him)

11-Al-Durrah al-Madiyyah fi ‘Aqeedah al-Firqah al-Mardiyyah by Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Safaareeni al-Hanbali.

This book contains some general statements which go against the madhhab of the salaf, such as his saying, “Our Lord is not an essence or an attribute or a physical entity, exalted be He.”

Therefore the seeker of knowledge has to study it with a shaykh who is well versed in the ‘aqeedah of the salaf, so that he can explain the general statements in it that go against the ‘aqeedah of the righteous salaf.

2) – Hadeeth

1- Fath al-Baari Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaari, by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqallaani (may Allaah have mercy on him).

2- Subul al-Salaam Sharh Buloogh al-Maraam, by al-San’aani, and his book Jaami’ bayna al-Hadeeth wa’l-Fiqh

3- Nayl al-Awtaar Sharh Muntaqaa al-Akhbaar by al-Shawkaani

4- ‘Umdat al-Ahkaam by al-Maqdisi. This is an abridged book; most of its ahaadeeth are narrated in al-Saheehayn so their authenticity does not need to be researched.

5- Al-Arba’een al-Nawawiyyah, by Abu Zakariyya al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him). This is a good book because it includes etiquette and a good methodology, and important basic principles, such as the hadeeth, “Part of a person’s being a good Muslim is his leaving alone that which does not concern him.”

(Narrated by Imaam Ahmad, 1 – 201; al-Tirmidhi, 2318; classed as hasan by al-Nawawi in Riyaadh al-Saaliheen, 73; classed as saheeh by Ahmad Shaakir in al-Musnad, 1737)

This principle – if one made it the path upon which one walks – would be sufficient. Another principle is given concerning when one should speak, “Whoever believes in Allaah and the Last Day, let him say something good or else remain silent.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Adab; Muslim, Kitaab al-Luqtah, Baab al-Diyaafah).

6- Buloogh al-Maraam, by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqallaani. This is a very useful book, especially because it mentions the narrators, and quoted the opinions of others scholars, who said whose hadeeth is saheeh and whose is da’eef, and he comments on the hadeeth to say whether they are saheeh or da’eef.

7- Nukhbat al-Fikr by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqallaani. This is considered to be a comprehensive work. If the seeker of knowledge understands it completely then he will have no need of many other books of mustalah (the science of hadeeth). Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) has a useful way of writing, which involves examining every issue in depth and categorizing the topics he discusses. If the seeker of knowledge reads it he will find it stimulating, because it is based on making one think. I say: it is good for the seeker of knowledge to memorize it because it is a useful summary of the science of mustalah (science of hadeeth).

8- The Six Books (Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Muslim, al-Nasaa’i, Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah and al-Tirmidhi). I advise the seeker of knowledge to read them often, because that will serve two purposes: reviewing the main sources of Islam and reviewing the names of hadeeth narrators. If you often review the names of hadeeth narrators, then whenever you come across the name of one of the narrators of al-Bukhaari in any isnaad, you will know that this is one of the narrators of al-Bukhaari, so you will benefit from this knowledge of hadeeth.

3) – Books of fiqh:

1- Aadaab al-mashiy ila’l-Salaah by Shaykh al-Islam Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab (may Allaah have mercy on him)

2- Zaad al-Mustaqni’ fi Ikhtisaar al-Muqni’ by al-Hajjaawi. This is one of the best texts of fiqh. It is a blessed book, brief and comprehensive. Our shaykh, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) told us to memorize it, even though he had memorized the text of Daleel al-Taalib.

3- Al-Rawd al-Murbi’ Sharh Zaad al-Mustaqni’ by Shaykh Mansoor al-Bahooti

4- ‘Umdat al-Fiqh by Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him)

5- al-Usool min ‘Ilm al-Usool. This is an abridged book which serves as an introduction for the seeker of knowledge.

4) – Faraa’id (laws of inheritance)

1- Matn al-Rahbiyyah by al-Rahbi

2- Matn al-Burhaaniyyah by Muhammad al-Burhaani. This is a useful and comprehensive abridged book dealing with all the laws of inheritance. I think that al-Burhaaniyyah is more comprehensive than al-Rahbiyyah in some ways, and it gives more information.

5) – Tafseer

1- Tafseer al-Qur’aan al-‘Azeem by Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him). This book is good for tafseer based on reports and it is useful and trustworthy. But it does pay much attention to matters of grammar and style.

2- Tayseer al-Kareem al-Rahmaan fi Tafseer Kalaam al-Mannaan by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him). This is a good, easy and trustworthy book, and I recommend it.

3- Muqaddimah Shaykh al-Islam fi’l-Tafseer. This is an important introduction.

4- Adwaa’ al-Bayaan by al-‘Allaamah Muhammad al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him). This is a comprehensive book covering hadeeth, fiqh, tafseer and usool al-fiqh.

6) – General books on some subjects:

1- On (Arabic) grammar: Matn al-Ajroomiyyah. This is an abridged book.

2- Also on Arabic grammar: Alfiyyah Ibn Maalik; this is a summary of the science of grammar.

3- On Seerah (Prophet’s biography): The best book that I have seen is Zaad al-Ma’aad by Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him). This is a very useful book in which he mentions the biography of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from all angels, then he discusses many rulings.

4- Rawdat al-‘Uqalaa’ by Ibn Hibbaan al-Busti (may Allaah have mercy on him). This is a useful book despite its brevity. He compiled a large amount of useful material and stories of the scholars, muhadditheen and others.

5- Siyar A’laam al-Nubalaa’ by al-Dhahabi. This book is very useful and the seeker of knowledge should read and refer to it.

From Fataawa al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, Kitaab al-‘Ilm, p. 92
Taken from http://www.Islam-QA.com

The Clarified Ruling of Mistakes done in Salat

The Clarified Ruling of Mistakes done in Salat by Shaykh Mashur Salman

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To Every Muslim
Who is keen to perform
The most important article
of Islam sincerely and properly in
Accordance with the Prophets (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
sunnah and hence gaining
the best rewards from
his Rabb (Lord)

by Shaykh Mashhur Hasan al-Salman (حفظه الله)
Translated by: Imān Zakariyah Abu Gazie

This book “The clarifying Discussion of Mistakes Done in
Salāt” discusses many mistakes that are commonly committed by
praying Muslims. The authenticity of some of which is not
established; on the contrary they are mere innovations. And others
are some optional or obligatory acts that are not done in their
proper positions or in the appropriate manner. No doubt that
plotting away false beliefs and misconceptions from peoples’ minds
and hearts by establishing truth instead, is on of the greatest paths
of calling to that which is one good [i.e. calling to Allāh aza wa jal]..

The Issue of ‘Raf al-yadayn’ (Raising the hands during prayer)

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to raise his hands for takbeerat al-ihram (the takbeer at the beginning of the prayer), sometimes whilst saying the takbeer, sometimes after it and sometimes before. (al-Bukhari and al-Nisaa’i)
When he had finished reciting Qur’an, he would pause for a moment then raise his hands, say takbeer and do rukoo’. (Sifat Salaat al-Nabi (صلى الله عليه وسلم), p. 128).

He used to raise his hands when he stood up from rukoo’ (reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim), and this raising of the hands is mutawaatir (reported by so many to so many that it is inconceivable that they could all have agreed on a lie). It is the opinion of the majority of scholars and of some of the Hanafis. (Sifat Salaat al-Nabi (صلى الله عليه وسلم) by al-Albani, p. 136).

Narrated by al-Bukhari (no.735) and Muslim (no.390) from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to raise his hands to shoulder level when he started to pray, when he said “Allahu akbar” before bowing in rukoo’, and when he raised his head from rukoo’.

What The Scholars Have Said:

The majority of scholars followed this hadeeth and said that it is mustahabb for the worshipper to raise his hands at the points mentioned in the hadeeth.

Imaam al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote a separate book on this issue which he called Juz’ fi Raf’ al-Yadayn (Section on Raising the Hands), in which he proved that the hands should be raised at these two points on the prayer, and he strongly denounced those who go against that. He narrated that al-Hasan said: “The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to raise their hands during prayer when they bowed and when they stood up (from bowing).” Al-Bukhari said, “Al-Hasan did not exclude any of the Sahaba from that, and it was not proven that any one among the Sahaba did not raise his hands.”

Imaam al-Bukhari said: “Al-Hasan and Humayd ibn Hilaal said: ‘The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) all used to raise their hands, without exception.” (Juz’ raf’ al-yadayn, p. 26, ma’a jila’ al-‘aynayn).

Ibn al-Qayyim said: “Look at the practice at the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and the Sahaba after him. They used to raise their hands in prayer when doing rukoo’, and when standing up again. And in the time of the Sahaba, if ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar saw someone not raising his hands in prayer, he would throw a stone at him. [next phrase is unclear]. (I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een, 2/376).

Az-Zayla’I (who was a Hanafi Scholar) said: in Nasb ar-Rayah, quoting from Juz’ Raf‘i-l-Yadayn of al-Bukhari, “ibn al-Mubarak used to raise his hands and he is the most knowledgeable of the people of his time as far as is known.
Ibn al-Mubarak said, ‘I prayed beside Nu‘man (Abu Haneefah’s real name) and I raised my hands so he said to me, “I fear that you are trying to fly.” I replied to him saying, “if I did not try to fly at the first [raising] then I was not trying to fly at the second.” ’ al-Waki said, ‘may Allah have mercy upon ibn al-Mubarak, he used to have his answers ready.’ ”

Abu Eesa [at-Tirmidhi] said; al-Fadl bin as-Sabbah al-Baghdadi narrated to us; Sufyan bin Uyaynah narrated to us; az-Zuhrî narrated to us; the likes of the hadeeth of ibn ‘Umar (Bukhari no.735) with this isnad

Abu Eesa said: the hadeeth of ibn Umar (Sahih Bukhari #735 #736 #737 #738 #739 ) is hasan sahih and some of the People of Knowledge from the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) held this view [stated in the hadîth].
From amongst them were: ibn ‘Umar, Jabir bin ‘Abdullah, Abu Hurayrah, Anas, ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Abdullah bin Zubair and others.
From amongst the Tabi‘een were: Hasan al-Basri, Ata, Tawus, Mujahid, Nafi‘, Salim bin ‘Abdullah, Sa‘id bin Jubair and others
And of this opinion were Maalik, Ma‘mar, Awzaa’i, Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah, Abdullah Ibn Mubarak, ash-Shafi’ee, Ahmad and Is’haq

Ibn Hibban said :in as-Salah, ‘this is the best narration that the people of Kufah narrate with regards to negating raising the hands in prayer at the ruku’ and at rising from it. In reality it is the weakest of things to depend on because it has defects that invalidate it’

Ibn Taymiyyah Said: “If a man is following Abu Haneefah or Maalik or al-Shafi’ee or Ahmad (Ibn Hanbal), and he sees that the view of another madhhab concerning a given matter is stronger, and he follows that, then he has done well, and that does not detract from his religious commitment or good character. There is no scholarly dispute on this point. Rather this is more in accordance with the truth and is more beloved by Allah and His Messenger.”
(Said by Shaykh al-Islam – may Allah have mercy on him – in al-Fataawa, 22/247).

Concearning The Hanafis of The Indian Sub Continent

(note: There is a story which is widespread among the Hanafis in the Indian sub-continent that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) only raised his hand because the people praying behind him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) were munafiqs who had idols under their arms, as strange as it sounds majority of the Hanafi’s of India, Pakistan & Bangladesh still believe this story, obviously this story is fabricated and we have  debated with Deobandi Maulana’s who admitted they don’t have any evidence as to where this story came from)

We do not know whether the ahaadeeth about raising the hands reached Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him) or not, but they did reach his followers. But they did not follow them because they had other ahaadeeth and reports which said that the hands should not be raised except when saying “Allahu akbar” at the beginning of the prayer.
These ahaadeeth include the following:

1) The hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood (749) from al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib, which says that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to raise his hands almost to his ears when he started to pray, then he did not repeat (this action).
2) The hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood (748) from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: “Shall I not lead you in prayer as the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did?” Then he prayed and he only raised his hands once.
See Nasb al-Raayah by al-Zayla’i, 1/393-407.

But these ahaadeeth were classed as da’eef (weak) by overwhelming majority of the Imams of hadeeth.

The hadeeth of al-Baraa’ (Abu Dawud no.749) was classed as da’eef by Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah, al-Shaafi’ee, al-Humaydi the shaykh of al-Bukhari, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Ma’een, al-Daarimi, al-Bukhari, and others.

The hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ud (Abu Dawud no.748) was classed as da’eef by ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal,  Yahya bin A’dham, Abu Dawood, al-Bukhari, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Hibban, al-Daaraqutni and others.

Similarly, the reports which were narrated from some of the Sahaba about not raising the hands are all da’eef.

Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak said: “the hadeeth of the one who raises his hands is established,” and he mentioned the hadeeth of Salim (Ibn Abdullah) from his father (Ibn Umar), “and the hadeeth of ibn Mas’ud is not established

We have quoted above the words of al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him): “…it was not proven that any one among the Sahaba did not raise his hands.”
See Talkhees al-Habeer by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar, 1/221-223.

Once it is proven that these ahaadeeth and reports which say that the hands should not be raised are weak, then the ahaadeeth which say that the hands should be raised remain strong with no opposing reports.

Hence the believer should not fail to raise his hands at the points in prayer described in the Sunnah. He should strive to make his prayer like the prayer of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
who said, “Pray as you have seen me praying.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 631).

Hence ‘Ali ibn al-Madeeni, the Shaykh of al-Bukhari, said: “It is the duty of the Muslims to raise their hands when they bow in rukoo’ and when they stand up from rukoo’.” Al-Bukhari said: “ ‘Ali was the most knowledgeable of the people of his time.”

So what is proven in the Sunnah with regard to raising the hands in prayer is that they should be raised at four points in the prayer:
1.when pronouncing takbeerat al-ihraam,
2.when going for rukoo’,
3.when standing up from rukoo’,
4.after standing up from the first tashahhud.

And Allah knows best.

(Article compiled from the works of Shaykh Salih al-Munajjid & Abu al-Ala Muhammad al-Mubarakpuri)

Ijtihaad and Taqleed

by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sâlih al-‘Uthaymeen

The Shaykh, may Allaah have mercy on him, says in his ‘Al-Usool min ‘Ilimil Usool’ (pp97-104),

‘Definition of Ijtihaad:

linguistically ijtihaad means: to expend efforts in order to reach some difficult matter. Technically it means: expending efforts to arrive at a Sharee’ah ruling. And the Mujtahid is the one who expends efforts for this purpose.

Conditions for Ijtihaad:

Being a mujtahid has conditions, from them:-

  1. That he knows the Sharee’ah proofs which he needs in his ijtihaad – such as the verses and ahaadeeth pertaining to rulings.
  2. That he knows what relates to the authenticty or weakness of a hadeeth, such as having knowledge of the isnaad and it’s narrators and other than this.
  3. That he knows the abrogated and the abrogating, and the places where there is ijmaa – such that he does not give a ruling according to something that has been abrogated, nor give a ruling that opposes the (authentically related) ijmaa.
  4. That he knows from the proofs that which causes the rulings to vary, such as takhsees (particularisation), or taqyeed (restriction), or it’s like. So he does not give a judgement which is contrary to this.
  5. That he knows the Arabic language and usul al-fiqh, and what relates to the meanings and indications of particular wordings – such as the general, the particular, the absolute and unrestricted, the restricted, the unclarified, and the clarified, and it’s like – in order that he gives rulings in accordance with what this demands.
  6. That he has the ability to extract rulings from the evidences.

And ijtihaad may be split up, such that it may be undertaken in one particular branch of knowledge, or in one particular issue.

What is essential for the Mujtahid:

It is essential that the Mujtahid strives in expending his efforts to arrive at knowledge of the truth, and to give rulings in accordance to what is apparent to him. If he is correct, then he has two rewards: one for his ijtihaad, and the other for arriving at the truth – since arriving at the truth means that it is manifested and acted upon. If, however, he is mistaken, then he has a single reward, and his error is forgiven him, as he (SAW) said, “when a judge judges and strives and is correct, then he has two rewards. If he judges and strives and errs, then he has a single reward.” If the ruling is not clear to him, then he must withold – and in such a case, taqleed is permissible for him, due to necessity.

Taqleed – it’s definition:

Linguistically, taqleed means: Placing something around the neck, which encircles the neck. Technically it means: Following he whose sayings is not a proof (hujjah).

Exlcuded from our saying, “following he whose saying is not a proof” is: following the Prophet (SAW), following the ijmaa and also following the saying of the sahaabee – for those who consider the saying of a single sahaabee to be a proof. So following any of these is not called taqleed, since there is a proof for doing so. However this type of following is sometimes referred to as taqleed in a very metaphorical and loose sense.

The Place of Taqleed:

Taqleed is done in two cases:

1) when the muqallid is an ‘aamee (a common person) who does not have the ability to aquire knowledge of the sharee’ah ruling by himself. So taqleed is obligatory upon him, due to the saying of Allaah – The Most High, “ask the people of knowledge if you do not know.” So he does taqleed of one whom he considers to be a person of knowledge and piety. If there are two such people who are equal in his view, then he chooses any one of them.

2) The mujtahid when he encounters a new situation, for which an immediate solution is required, but it is not possible for him to research into this matter. So in this case he is permitted to perform taqleed.

Some stipulate as a condition for the permissibility of taqleed, that the matter is not from the fundamentals of the deen – those matters which must be held as aqueedah – since matters of aqueedah require certainty, whereas taqleed only amounts to dhann (knowledge which is not certain).

However the correct saying in this matter is that this is not a condition, due to the generality of his – the Most High’s – saying, “ask the people of knowledge if you do not know.” And this verse is in the context of affirming the Messengership – which is from the fundamentals of the deen. And also because the common person cannot acquire knowledge of the sharee’ah rulings with it’s proofs by himself. So if he is unable to arrive at the truth by himself, then nothing remains for him except taqleed, due to the saying of Allaah – the most High, “fear Allaah as much as you can”

Types of Taqleed:

Taqleed is of two types: general and specific.

1) The general type: that a person sticks to a particular madhhab (school of thought), accepting it’s concessions and non-concessions, in all matters of the deen.

The scholars have differed about such a state. So some amongst the late-comers have reported that this is obligatory upon him, due to his inability to perform ijtihaad. Others report it as being forbidden for him, due to its being a case of necessitating unrestricted following of other than the Prophet (SAW).

Shaykh al-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah said,

“The saying that it is obligatory, causes obedience to other than the Prophet (SAW) in every matter of command and pohibition, and this is in opposition to the ijmaa’. And the allowance of it contains what it contains.”

He (RH) also said,

“He who sticks to a particular madhhab, and then acts in opposition to it – without making taqleed of another scholar who has given him a ruling, nor does he use an evidence as a proof which necessitates acting in opposition to his madhhab, nor does he have an acceptable Sharee’ah excuse which allows him to do what he has done – then such a person is a follower of his desires, doing what is haraam – without a Sharee’ah excuse – and this is evil and sinful.However, if there becomes clear to him, something which necessitates preference to one saying to another – either due to detailed proofs if he knows and understands them, or because he holds one of two people to be more knowledgeable about this matter and having more piety with regards to what he says – and so he leaves the saying of that one for the saying of the other one, then this is permissible, rather, it is obligatory. And there is a text from Imaam Ahmad about this.”

2) The particular type of taqleed is that he accepts a saying about a particular matter. This is permissible if such a person is unable to arrive at knowledge of the by ijtihaad – whether he is unable to in reality, or he is able, but with great difficulty.

Fatwaa of a Muqallid:

Allaah – the Most High – said, “Ask the people of knowledge if you do not know.” And the Ahludh Dhikr are the Ahlul Ilm (the people of knowledge), whereas the muqallid is not a person of knowledge who is followed – rather he himself is a follower of someone else.

Ibn Abdul Barr (d.463) and others have said,

“the people are united in ijmaa that the muqallid is not counted as being from the Ahlul Ilm, and that knowledge is the realisation of guidance along with it’s proof.”

Ibn al-Qayyim said,

” And it is as Abu Umar (ibn Abdul Barr) said: Indeed, the people do not differ about the fact that knowledge is the realisation attained from proof, but without proof, it is only taqleed.”

Ibn al-Qayyim then quotes,

“There are three sayings about the permissibility of giving fatwaa based upon taqleed:1) It is not permissible to give fatwaa based upon taqleed, because it is not knowledge; since issuing a fatwaa without knowledge is forbidden. This is the saying of most of the Hanbalee scholars and the majority of the Shaafi’iyyah.

2) That it is permissible with regards to himself, but it is not permissible to give a fatwaa to others based upon taqleed.

3) That it is permissible when there is a need for it, and there is no mujtahid scholar. And this is the most correct of the sayings and is what is acted upon.”‘

Shaykh al-Albaanee says in his, ‘The Hadeeth is a Proof in itself’ after mentioning the statements of the Imaams on Taqleed as found in the introduction to ‘The Prophets Prayer Described’ brings a chapter heading, “Taqleed for whoever cannot search for proofs by himself” (pp94+),

‘”Some may ask: “Not everyone has the ability to be a Person of Knowledge, as explained before?” We say: yes indeed. No one disputes this fact. Allaah said, “So ask the People of Knowledge if you do not know.” (16:43) and, “ask the knowledgeable about it” (25:59). The Prophet (SAW), for those who issued fatwa without knowledge: “Could not they have asked if they did know? The cure for the confused one is to ask.” However, we did not mention all of the above evidence to show who can and who cannot be a scholar. Our research is with regards to those few who are considered to be People of Knowledge….Taqleed is upon the common person and the ignorant one. The scholars, who can search for the evidence, are excluded from this group. They are the ones whose responsibility is not to do Taqleed. Rather, their responsibility is to perform Ijtihaad. The following saying by ibn Abdul Barr explains this matter further, “All these rules are for the common folk, they are the ones who have to perform Taqleed of their scholars when needed. They are not capable of understanding or comprehending evidence or knowledge. Knowledge has grades, one cannot attain the topmost grade unless he goes via the base…Scholars do not differ with regards to the common folk having to follow their scholars…” However, I believe that to generalise about the common folk by saying that they all must perform taqleed is invalid. Taqleed is to follow others without evidence. Many intelligent people can clearly understand evidence if it is presented to them. Who can deny that a common person can understand the evidence contained in the hadeeth, “Tayammum is one strike (of the hands on the dust) for the face and hands”? Even people lacking intelligence can understand this hadeeth. Therefore, the truth is that we must say that Taqleed is allowed for whosoever cannot search for or understand the evidence, ibn al-Qayyim also was of this opinion. Even scholars are forced to do Taqleed sometimes, when a scholar cannot find a text from Allaah or His Messenger, but only sayings of more knowledgeable scholars.”

Footnotes

1. He is Abu Abdullaah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Muhammad ibn Uthaymeen al-Wuhaibee at-Tameemee, born 27th Ramadaan 1347 in ‘Unayzah, Saudia Arabia. He memorised the Qur’aan during early life and then studied under two of the students of Shaykh Abd ar-Rahmaan as-Sa’dee, later on going to study under the Shaykh himself. He studied Tawheed, tafseer, hadeeth, fiqh, usul al-fiqh, al-faraa’id (inheritance), nahw (grammar) and sarf (morphology). Then he studied under the scholar Abd al-Azeez bin Baaz. He is one of the foremost shaykhs of Ahlus Sunnah today, and has written around 40 books.

2. ‘Jaami Bayaan al-Ilm’ (2/119). And Allaamah al-Fulaanee says in his, ‘Eeqaadh Hamam Oolil Absaar’ (pg. 25), “….ilm refers only to what is in Allaah’s Book, and the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (SAW) and the ijmaa and what is gained by qiyaas upon these sources….It does not refer to what the muqallids and the people of party spirit regard as ilm – in thei restricting ilm to refer to that which is written in the books of the opinions of the madhaahib – even though some of that clashes with the Prophetic ahaadeeth..”
ash-Shaatibee says in ‘al-Muwaafiqaat’ (4/293), “the muqallid is not an aalim.” And it occurs in the books of the Hanafees that the ignorant one is not allowed to take the post of Qadee (judge). And ibn al-Hammaan explains the ignorant one to be the Muqallid in ‘Fath al-Qadeer’ (5/456) and likewise ibn Wazeer in ‘Rawdah al-Baasim’ (1/36).

3. ‘I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een’ (1/7)

4. Imaaam ash-Shafi’ee said in his ‘Risalah’ (pg.39): “It is not permissible for anyone to ever to say about anything that it is halaal or haraam except upon knowledge. And this knowledge is what is related in the Book, or the Sunnah or Ijmaa or Qiyaas.”

5. pp’s 83+ of the English translation by The Daar of Islamic Heritage. This whole section is important and should be read thoroughly as it clears up many misconceptions and doubts.